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Full text of "NFPA 1500 (2007): Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

i^ All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein, "^^k 

* * 

NFPA 1500 (2007), Fire Department Occupational 
Safety and Health Program, as incorporated by 
and mandated by the States and Municipalities, 
including the Illinois General Assembly in 
Section 141.20, Title 41 of the Administrative 
Code . 





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B^^n^s 






NFPA®, 1 Batterymarch Park, PO Box 91 01 , Quincy, MA 02269-91 01 , USA 
An International Codes and Standards Organization 



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1500-2 



F[RE DEP,AJITMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



Technical Committee on Fire Service Occupational Safety and Health 



Glenn P. Benarick, Chair 

Aiken, SC [U] 

Rep. NFPAFire Service Section 



Murrey E. Loflin, Secretary 

Virginia Beacii Fire Department, VA [U] 

(Alt. to G. P. Benarick) 

Rep. NFPAFire Service Section 



Donald Aldridge, LionApparel, Inc., OH [M] 
David J. Barillo, University of Florida College of 
Medicine, FL [SE] 

Paul "Shon" Blake, City of Baytown Fire & Rescue 
Services, TX [E] 

Rep. Industrial Emergency Response Working Group 
Sandy Bogucki, Yale University Emergency Medicine 
CT [SE] 

Dennis R. Childress, Orange County Fire Authoritv 
CA [U] 

Rep. California State Firefighters Association 
Dominic J. CoUetti, Hale Products, Inc., PA [M] 

Rep. Fire Apparatus Manufacturers Association 
Thomas J. Cuff,Jr., Firemen'sAssociation of the State of 
New York, NY [U] 
I. David Daniels, Fulton County Fire Department, GA IE] 

Rep. International As.socianon of Fire Chiefs 
Phil Eckhardt, Mine Safety Appliances Company PA [M] 

Rep. International Safety Equipment Associadon 
Jodi A. Gabelraann, Cobb County Fire and Emergency 
Seivices, GA [L] 

Rep. Women in the Fire Service, Inc. 
Tom Hillenbrand, Undenvriters Laboratories Inc., IE [RT] 
Jonathan D. Kipp, PrimexS, NH[I] 
Steve L. Kreis, City of Phoenix Fire Department, AZ [E] 
Tamara DiAnda Lopes, Reno Fire Department, NV [U] 



David A. Love, Jr., Volunteer Firemen's Insurance 

Services, Inc., PA [I] 

Geoi^e L. Maier, III, New York City Fire Department, 

NY[U] 

Stephen E. Norris, United Firefighters of Los Angeles 

City, CA [L] 

Richard S. Pike, Wantagh Fire District, AZ [U] 

Rep. /\s.sociation of Fire Districts/State of New York 
David J. Prezant, New York City Fire Department, NY [E] 
Joseph W. Rivera, U.S. Air Force, FL [U] 
Mario D. Rueda, Los Angeles City Fire Department, 
CA[U] 

Daniel G. Same, ENH - OMEGA, IL [SE] 
Charles C. Soros, Fire Department Safety Officers 
Associadon, WA [E] 

Donald F. Stewart, Medocracy Inc. /Fairfax County Fire 
and Rescue, VA [E] 
Philip C. Stittleburg, LaFarge Fire Department, WI [U] 

Rep. Nadonal Volunteer Fire Council 
Clifford H. Turen, University of Marv'land Orthopaedics 
MD [SE] 

Teresa Wann, Santa Ana College, CA [SE] 
Don N. Whittaker, U.S. Department of Energy, ID [E] 
Hugh E. Wood, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 
MD [SE] 
Kim D. Zagaris, State of California, CA [E] 



Alternates 



Janice C. Bradley, Internadonal Safety Eciuipment 
Associadon, VA [M] 

(Alt. to P Eckhardt) 
Niles R. Ford, Fulton County Fire Department, GA [E] 

(Alt. to I. D. Daniels) 
Craig A. Fry, Los Angeles City Fire Department, CA [U] 

(Alt. to M. D. Rueda) 
John Granby, Lion Apparel, Inc., OH [M] 

(Alt. to D. Aldridge) 
Gordon W. Harris, Jr., Elkhart Brass Manufacturing 
Company Inc., CT [M] 

(Alt. to D.J. Colletd) 
Allen S. Hay, Fire Department City of New York, NY [U] 

(Ml to G. L. Maier, III) 
Thomas Healy, Daisy Mountain Fire District, AZ [E] 

(Alt. to S. L. Kreis) 
James Johannessen, Undenvriters Laboratories Inc., 
PA [RT] 

(Alt. to T. Hillenbrand) 



Sandra S. Kirkwood, Las Vegas Fire/Rescue Department 
NV[SE] 

(Alt. to T. Wann) 
Denis M. Murphy, Nassau County Fire Service Arademv 
NY[U] 

(Alt. to R. S. Pike) 
Gary L. Neilson, Reno Fire Department, NV [U] 

(Alt. to T. D. Lopes) 
Cathleen S. Orchard, Monterey Park Fire Department 
CA [L] 

(Alt. to J. A. Gabelmann) 
David Ross, Toronto Fire Services, Canada [E] 

(Alt. to C. C. Soros) 
Thomas J. Ryan, U.S. Air Force, FL [U] 

(Alt. toj. W. Rivera) 
Michael W. Smith, Nevada Division of Forestry, NV [U] 

(Alt. to P. C. Sdttleburg) 
Michael L. Young, Volunteer Firemen's Insurance 
Services, Inc., PA [I] 

(Alt. toD.A. Love, Jr.) 



2007 Edition 



1500-1 



Copyright © 2006 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reser\'ed. 

NFPA 1500 

Standard on 

Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program 

2007 Edition 

This edition of NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Pro- 
gram, was prepared by the Technical Committee on Fire Ser\'ice Occupational Safety and 
Health and acted on by NFPA at its June Association Technical Meeting held June 4-8, 2006, 
in Orlando, FL. It was issued by the Standards Council on July 28, 2006, with an ettective date 
of August 17, 2006, and supersedes all previous editions. 

A tentative interim amendment (TIA) to Section 7.15 and its Annex A paragraphs was 
issued onjuly 28, 2006. For further informadon on tentative interim amendments see Section 
5 of the NFPA Regulations Governing Committee Projects available at: 

http://wwv.nfpa.org/assets/files/PDF/CodesStandards/TIAErrataFl/TIARegs.pdf 

This edition of NFPA 1500 was approved as an American National Standard on August 17, 
2006. 

Origin and Development of NFPA 1500 

This is the fifth edition of NFPA 1500. The first edition was published in 1987 as there was 
no consensus standard for an occupational safety and health program for the fire service. Fire 
service organizations were being increasingly subject to regulations that were developed for 
general industry and that did not provide for many of the specific needs and concerns of an 
organization involved in the delivery of emergency services. The direct line-of-duty deaths 
were being documented and reported, but there was also a growing concern with the number 
of fire fighters who were suffering disabling injuries or developing occupational diseases that 
often had debilitating or fatal consequences. Following the first edition, revised editions were 
published in 1992, 1997, and 2002. 

The technical committee, working from data provided from NFPA's Data Analysis and 
Research Division and NIOSH Fire Fighter Investigation reports, has carefiilly reviewed the 
entire document including the associated annex material, and updated many areas to reflect 
current best practices. Requirements were reorganized in some areas to make the document 
more user friendly. 

Among the changes made were revising the section on risk management and adding 
additional explanation in the annex. A new section on appointment of a health and safety 
officer was added, and sections that duplicated the responsibilities of the health and safety 
officer in NFPA 1521 were removed. 

Chapter 5 was reorganized and revised to reflect not only the need of members to have 
skill and knowledge in performing their day-to-day tasks but also the need for ongoing pro- 
fessional development. 

In Chapter 6, requirements and annex material were added to support improved vehicle 
response operations with an emphasis on safe arrival at the scene. 

Requirements for providing and using protective ensembles appropriate for technical 
rescue operations and chemical and biological terrorism incidents that went into the 2002 
edition as a TIA were updated and incorporated, as were other requirements for personal 
protective ensembles. 

New sections on traffic incidents, establishing control zones, and fitness for duty evalua- 
tions were added. 

Fire fighting and the deliver)' of other emergency services continues to be a hazardous job. 
However, the poor medical condition or physical fitness of some members, as well as prob- 
leins with vehicle operator training and operation, use of an incident management system, 
and communication capability continue to further erode the safe delivery of emergency ser- 
vices. This edition of the standard continues to emphasize a holistic approach to health and 
safetv in the fire service. 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 1500-3 



Nonvoting 

Matthew I. Chibbaro, U.S. Department of Labor, DC [E] Mark F. McFaU, U.S. Department of Health & Human 

Thomas R. Hales, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, \VV [RT] 

Services, OH [RT] (Alt. to T. R. Hales) 

Robert B. BeU, U.S. Department of Labor, DC [E] 
(Alt. to M. I. Chibbaro) 

Carl E. Peterson, NFPA Staff Liaison 

This list represents the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the final text of this edition. Since that time, 
dianges in tlie membm'ship may have occurred. A key to classifications isfi)und at the hack of the document. 

NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of the Association or 
any document developed by the committee on which the member serves. 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on occupational safety 
and health in the working environment of the fire service. The Committee shall also have responsibility for 
documents related to medical requirements for fire fighters. 



2007 Edition 



1500^ 



FIRE DEPAl^TMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



Contents 



Chapter 1 Administration 1500—6 

1.1 Scope 1500- 6 

1.2 Purpose 1500- 6 

1.3 Application 1500- 6 

1.4 Equivalency 1500- 6 

1.5 Adoption Requirements 1500— 6 

Chapters Referenced Publications 1500- 6 

2.1 General 1500- 6 

2.2 NFPA Publications 1500- 6 

2.3 Other Publications 1500- 7 

2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory 

Sections 1500- 7 

Chapters Definitions 1500- 8 

3.1 General 1500- 8 

3.2 Official NFPA Definitions 1500- 8 

3.3 General Definitions 1500-8 

Chapter 4 Fire Department Administration 1 500— 1 1 

4.1 Fire Department Organizational 

Statement 1500-11 

4.2 Risk Management Plan 1500-11 

4.3 Safety and Health Policy 1500-11 

4.4 Roles and Responsibilities 1500-11 

4.3 Occupational Safety and Health 

Committee 1500-12 

4.6 Records 1500-12 

4.7 Appointment of the Health and Safety 

Officer 1500-12 

Chapter 5 Training, Education, and 

Professional Development 1500—12 

5.1 General Requirements 1500-12 

5.2 Member Qualifications 1500-13 

5.3 Training Requirements 1500-13 

5.4 Special Operations Training 1500-13 

5.5 Member Proficiency 1500-13 



6.1 
6.2 

6.3 
6.4 

6.3 



Chapter 6 Fire Apparatus, Equipment, and 

Drivers/Operators 

Fire DepartmentApparatus 

Drivers/Operators of Fire Department 

Apparatus 

Riding in Fire Apparatus 

Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair of 

Fire Apparatus 

Tools and Equipment 



Chapter 7 Protective Clothing and Protective 
Equipment 

7.1 General 

7.2 Protective Clothing for Structural Fire 
Fighting 



1500-13 
1500-13 

1500-14 
1500-15 

1500-15 
1500-15 



1500-16 
1500-16 

1500-16 



7.3 

7.4 
7.3 

7.6 

7.7 

7.8 

7.9 

7.10 

7.11 

7.12 

7.13 

7.14 

7.15 

7.16 

7.17 
7.18 
7.19 



Protective Clothing for Proximity 

Fire-Fighting Ope rations 

Protective Clothing for Emergency 

Medical Operations 

Chemical-Protective Clothing for 
Hazardous Materials Emergency 

Operations 

Inspection, Maintenance, and Disposal 

of Chemical-Protective Clothing 

Protective Clothing and Equipment for 

Wildland Fire Fighting 

Protective Ensembles for Technical 

Rescue Operations 

Respiratory Protection Program 

Breathing Air 

Respiratory Protection Equipment 

Fit Testing 

Using Respiratory Protection 

SCBA Cylinders 

Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) . . . . 
Life Safety Rope and System 

Components 

Face and Eye Protection 

Hearing Protection 

New and Existing Protective Clothing 
and Protective Equipment 



8.2 
8.3 

8.4 

8.5 

8.6 
8.7 
8.8 

8.9 

8.10 

8.11 



Chapter 8 Emergency Operations 

8.1 Incident Management 

Communications 

Risk Management During Emergency 

Operations 

Personnel Accountability During 

Emergency Operations 

Members Operating at Emergency 

Inciden ts 

Control Zones 

Traffic Incidents 

Rapid Inter\'ention for Rescue of 

Members 

Rehabilitation During Emergency 

Operations 

Scenes of Violence, Civil Unrest, or 

Terrorism 

Post-Incident Analysis 



Chapter 9 FaciHty Safety 

9.1 Safety Standards 

9.2 Inspections 

9.3 Maintenance and Repairs 



Chapter 10 Medical and Physical Requirements 

10.1 Medical Requirements 

10.2 Physical Performance Requirements 



1500-16 
1500-17 

1500-17 
1500-19 

1500-19 

1500-19 
1500-19 
1500-20 
1500-20 
1500-20 
1500-20 
1500-21 
1500-21 

1500-21 
1500-22 
1500-22 

1500-22 

1500-22 
1500-22 
1500-23 

1500-23 

1500-23 

1500-23 
1500-25 
1500-25 

1500-25 

1500-26 

1500-26 
1500-26 

1500-26 
1500-26 
1500-27 
1500-27 

1500-27 
1500-27 

1500-27 



2007 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1500-5 



10.3 Health and Fitness 1500-27 

10.4 Confidential Health Data Base 1500-27 

10.5 Infection Control 1500-28 

10.6 Fire Department Physician 1500-28 

10.7 Fitness for Duty Evaluations 1500-28 

Chapter II Member Assistance and Wellness 

Programs 1500-28 

11.1 Member Assistance Program 1500-28 

11.2 Wellness Program 1500-28 

Chapter 12 Critical Incident Stress Program 1500—28 

12.1 General 1500-28 

AnnexA Explanatory Material 1500—28 

Annex B Monitoring Compliance with a Fire 
Service Occupational Safety and 
Healdi Program 1500-51 



Annex C Building Hazard Assessment 1500-70 

Annex D Risk Management Plan Factors 1500-70 

Annex E Fire Fighter Safety at Wildland Fires .... 1500-70 
Annex F Hazardous Materials PPE Information . 1500—73 
Annex G Sample FaciUty Inspector Checklists ... 1500—74 

Annex H Informational References 1500—79 

Index 1500-81 



2007 Edition ft 



#J 



1500-6 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEiVLTH PROGRAM 



NFPA 1500 

Standard on 

Fire Department Occupational Safety and 
Health Program 

2007 Edition 

IMPORTANT NOTE: This NFPA document is made available for 
use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These notices 
and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document 
and may be found under the heading "Important Notices and Dis- 
claimers Concerning NFPA Documents. " They can also be obtained 
on request from NFPA or viewed at xmuw.nfpa.org/disclaimers. 

NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter 
designating a paragraph indicates that explanatory material 
on the paragraph can be found in Annex A. 

A reference in brackets [ ] following a section or paragraph 
indicates material that has been extracted from another NFPA 
document. As an aid to the user, the complete dtle and edition 
of the source documenLs for extracts in mandatory sections of 
the document are given in Chapter 2 and those for extracts in 
informational sections are given in Annex H. Editorial 
changes to extracted material consist of revising references to 
an appropriate division in this document or the inclusion of 
the document number with the division number when the 
reference is to the original document. Requests for interpreta- 
tions or revisions of extracted text shall be sent to the techni- 
cal committee responsible for the source document. 

Information on referenced publications can be found in 
Chapter 2 and Annex H. 



Chapter 1 Administration 

1.1 Scope. This standard shall contain minimum require- 
ments for a fire service-related occupational safety and health 
program . 

1.2 Purpose. 

1.2.1 The purpose of this standard shall be to specify the 
minimum requirements for an occupational safety and health 
program for a fire department. 

1.2.2 This standard shall specify safety requirements for 
those members involved in rescue, fire suppression, emer- 
gency medical services, hazardous materials operations, spe- 
cial operations, and rekited activities. 

1.2.3* The authority having jurisdiction shall identify which 
performance objectives of this standard existing programs or 
policies meet. 

1.2.4 Nothing herein shall be intended to restrict any juris- 
diction from exceeding these minimum requirements. 

1.3 Application. 

1.3.1 The reqiurements of this standard shall be applicable to 
organizations providing rescue, fire suppression, emergency 
medical seraces, hazardous materials mitigation, special op- 
erations, and other emergency services, including public, mili- 
tary, private, and industrial fire departments. 



1.3.2 This standard shall not apply to industrial fire brigades 
that might also be known as emergency brigades, emergency 
response teams, fire teams, plant emergency organizations, or 
mine emergency response teams. 

1.4 Equivalency. 

1.4.1* The authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to 
approve an equivalent level of qualifications for the require- 
ments specified in Chapter 5 of this standard. 

1.4.2 The fire department shall provide technical documen- 
tation to demonstrate equivalency. 

1.5 Adoption Requirements. 

1.5.1* When this standard is adopted by a jurisdiction, the 
authority having jurisdiction shall set a date or dates for 
achieving compliance with the requirements of this standard. 

1.5.2* The authority havingjuriscUction shall be permitted to 
establish a phase-in schedule for compliance with specific re- 
quirements of this standard. 

1.5.3 The fire department shall adopt a risk management 
plan as specified in Section 4.2 of this standard. 

1.5.3.1 This risk management plan shall include a written 
plan for compliance with this standard. 



Chapter 2 Referenced Publications 

2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this 
chapter are referenced within this standard and shall be con- 
sidered part of the requirements of this document. 

2.2 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association, 
1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471. 

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 2007 edition, 

NFPA 101®, Life Safely Code^, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 472, Skmdard for Professional Competence ofResponders ki 
Hazardous Materials Incidents, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 473, Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel Re- 
sponding to Hazardous Materials Incidents, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1001, Standard for Eire Fighter Professional Qitalif ca- 
tions, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1002, Standard for Eire Apparatus Driver/Operator Profes- 
sional Qualifications, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1003, Standard for AirponEire Fighter Professional Qiudi- 
fications, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1006, Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qiudi- 
fications, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1021, Standard for Eire Officer Professional (hmUfications, 
2003 edition. 

NFPA 1051, Standard for Wildland Eire Fighter Professiomd 
Qiialifications, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1071, Standard for Emergency Vehicle Technician Profes- 
sional Qtialificutions, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1221, Standard for the Instedlalion, Maintenance, and Use 
of Emergency Sendees Communications Systems, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 1403, Standard on Live Eire Training Evolutions, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 1404, Standard for Eire Service Respiratory Protection 
Training, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1521, Standard for Eire Department Safety Officer, 2002 
edition. 



2007 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLIf:ATIONS 



1500-7 



NFPA 156,1, Standard on Emergency Services Incident Manage- 
ment System, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1581, Standard on Fire Department Infection Control Pro- 
gram, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1582, Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical 
Program for Fire Departments, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 1583, Standard on Health-Related Fitness Progmms for 
Fire Fighters, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 1670, Standard on Operations and Training for Technical 
Search and Rescue Incidents, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1851, Standard on Selection, Care, and Maintenance of 
Stmclural Fire Fighting Protective Ensembles, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 1852, Standard on Selection, Care, and Maintenance of Open- 
Circuit Self-Contcdned BreatMngAf)paratus (SCBA), 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 2003 
edition. 

NFPA 1906, Standard for Wildland Fire Apparatus, 2006 edi- 
tion. 

NFPA 1911, Standard for Service Tests of Fire Pump Systems on 
Fire Apparatus, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1912, Standard fen Fire Apparatus Refurbishing, 2006 
edition. 

NFPA 1914, Standard for Testing Fire Department Aerial Devices, 

2002 edidon. 

NFPA 1915, Standard for Fire Apparatus Preventive Mainte- 
nance Program, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 1925, Standard on Marine Fire-Fighting Vessels, 2004 
edition. 

NFPA 1931 , Standard for Manufacturer's Design of Fire Depart- 
ment Ground Ladders, 2004 edition, 

NFPA 1 932, Standard on Use, Maintenance, and Service Testing 
of fn-Seruice Fire Department Ground Ladders, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1936, Standard on Poiuered Rescue Tools, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1951, Standard on Protective Ensemble for USAR Opera- 
tions, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 1 961 , Standard on Fire Hose, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1962, Standard for the Inspection, Care, and Use of Fire 
Hose, Couplings, and Nozzles and the Service Testing of Fire Hose, 

2003 edidon. 

NFPA 1964, Standard for Spiny Nozzles, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1971, Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structured Fire 
Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 1975, Standard on Station/Work Uniforms for Fire and 
Emergency Services, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1 977, Standard on Protective Clothing a,nd Equipment for 
Wildland Fire Fighting, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1981, Standard on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing 
Apparatus for Fire and Emergency Services, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1982, Standard on Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS), 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 1983, Standard on Life Safety Rope and Equipment for 
Emergency Services, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1989, Standard on Breathing Air Qiudity for Fire and 
Emergency Services Respiratory Protection, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor-Protective Ensembles for Hazard- 
ous Materials Emergencies, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1992, Standard on Liquid Splash-Protective Ensembles and 
Clothing for Hazardous Mcderials Emergencies, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1994, Standard on Protective Ensembles for First Respond- 
ers to CBRN Terrorism Incidents, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 1999, Standard on Protective Clothing for Emergency Medi- 
ccd Operations, 2003 edition. 



2.3 Other Publications. 

2.3.1 ACGIH Publications. American Conference of Gov- 
ernmental Industrial Hygienists, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, 
Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634. 

77.75® and BEIs®, 2005. 

2.3.2 ANSI Publications. American National Standards Insti- 
tute, Inc., 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036. 

ANSI Z87.1, Pmctice for Occupational and Educational Eye and 
Face Protection, 2003, 

2.3.3 U.S. Government Publications. U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, U.S. Department 
of Health and Human Semces, Center for Disease Control 
and Prevention. NIOSH Publication 97-140, February 2004. 

NIOSH Standard for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, cmd 
Nuclear (CBRN) Full Facepiece Air Purifying Respirator (APR), 
March 2003. 

NIOSH Standard for Chemical, Biologiccd, Radiological, and 
Nuclear (CBRN) Open Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus 
f.S'CM), December 2001. 

Title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 84, Approval of 
respiratory protective devices, 2004. 

2.3.4 Other Publications. 

Lewis, Richard J., Sr., Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial 
Materials, 11th ed.,'john Wiley & Sons, 2004. 

Merriarn-Wehster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1 1th edition, Meniam- 
Webster, Inc., Springfield, MA, 2003. 

2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections. 

NFPA 472, Standard for Professional Competence ofRespondas to 
Hazardous Materials Incidents, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 600, Standard on Industrial Fire Brigades, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1250, Recommended Practice in Emergency Service Organi- 
zation Risk Management, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1404, Standard for Fire Service Flespiratory Protection 
Trmning, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1451 , Stem dard for a Fire Service Vehicle Operations Train- 
ing Program, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1561, Standard on Emergency Services Incident Manage- 
ment System, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1670, Standard on Operations and Training f err Technical 
Search and Rescue Incidents, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1710, Standard for the Organization and DepUryment of Fire 
Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Op- 
erations to the Public by Career Fire Departments, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fvre Apparatus, 2003 
edition. 

NFPA 1977, Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for 
Wildland Fire Fighting, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1981, Standard cm Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing 
Apparatus for Fire and Emergency Services, 2002 edition. 

NFPA i982. Standard on Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS), 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 1 99 1 , Standard on Vctpor-Protective Ensembles for Hazard- 
ous Matericds Emergencies, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1994, Stcmdard on Protective Ensembles for First Respond- 
ers to CBRN Terrorism Incidents, 2007 edition. 



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Chapter 3 Definitions 

3.1 General. The definitions contained in this chapter shall 
apply to the terms used in this standard. Where terms are not 
defined in this chapter or within another chapter, they shall 
be defined using their ordinarily accepted meanings within 
the context in which they are used. Meiriam-Webster's Collegiate 
Dktionaiy, 11th edition, shall be the source for the ordinarily 
accepted meaning. 

3.2 Official NFPA Definitions. 

3.2.1* Approved. Acceptable to the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion. 

3.2.2* Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). An organization, 
office, or individual responsible for enforcing the require- 
ments of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, 
materials, an installation, or a procedure. 

3.2.3 Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement 

3.2.4 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is 
advised but not required. 

3.3 General Definitions. 

3.3.1 Advanced Life Support (ALS). See 3.3.61.1. 

3.3.2 Aerial Device. An aerial ladder, elev-ating platform, or wa- 
ter tower that is designed to position personnel, handle materi- 
als, provide continuous egress, or discharge water. [1901, 2003] 

3.3.3* Air Transfer. The process of transferring air from one 
SCBA cylinder to another SCBA cylinder of the same rated 
presstne capacity by connecting them together with properly 
designed fittings and a high-pressure transfer line. 

3.3.4* Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting. The fire-fighting ac- 
tions taken to rescue persons and to control or extinguish fire 
involving or adjacent to aircraft on the ground. 

3.3.5 Atmosphere. 

3.3.5. 1 * Hazardous Atmosphere. Any atmosphere that is oxy- 
gen deficient or that contains a toxic or disease-producing 
contaminant. [1404, 2006] 

3.3.5.2 Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere. Air atmospheres con- 
taining less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume at one 
standard atmosphere pressure. 

3.3.6 Basic Life Support (BLS). See 3.3.61.2. 

3.3.7 Biological Terrorism Agents. Liquid or particulate agents 
that can consist of biologically derived toxin or pathogen to in- 
flict lethal or incapacitating casualties. [1994, 2007] 

3.3.8* Candidate. Aperson who has submitted an application 
to become a member of the fire department. 

3.3.9 CBRN. An abbreviation for chemicals, biological 
agents, and radiological particulate hazards. 

3.3.10* Chemical Flash Fire. The ignition of a flammable and 
ignitible vapor or gas that produces an outward expanding 
flame front as those vapors or gases burn. This burning and 
expanding flame front, a fireball, will release both thermal 
and kinetic energy to the environment. [1991, 2005] 

3.3.11 Chemical Terrorism Agents. Liquid, solid, gaseous, and 
vapor chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals 
used to inflict lethal or incapacitating casualties, generally on a 
civilian population as a result of a terrorist attack. [1994, 2007] 



3.3.12* Clear Text. The use of plain language in radio com- 
munications transmissions. 

3.3.13 aosed-Circuit SCBA. See 3.3.87.1. 

3.3.14 Cold Zone. See 3.3.19.1. 

3.3.15 Communicable Disease. See 3.3.24.1. 

3.3.16* Company. A group of members (1) under the direct 
supervision of an officer; (2) trained and equipped to perform 
assigned ta.sks; (3) usually organized and identified as engine 
companies, ladder companies, rescue companies, squad com- 
panies, or multi-functional companies; (4) operating with one 
piece of fire apparatus (pumper, aerial fire apparatus, elevat- 
ing platform, quint, rescue, squad, ambulance) except where 
multiple apparatus are assigned that are dispatched and arrive 
together, continuously operate together, and are managed by 
a single company officer; (5) arriving at the incident scene on 
fire apparatus. 

3.3.17* Confined Space. An area large enough and so config- 
ured that a member can bodily enter and perform assigned 
work but which has limited or restricted means for entry and 
exit and is not designed for continuous human occupancy. 

3.3.18 Contaminant. A harmful, irritating, or nuisance mate- 
rial foreign to the normal atmosphere. [1404, 2006] 

3.3.19 Control Zones. The areas at an incident that are desig- 
nated based upon safety and the degree of hazard. 

3.3.19.1 Cold Zone. The control zone of an incident that 
contains the command post and such other support func- 
tions as are deemed necessary to control the incident. 

3.3.19.2 Hot Zone. The control zone immediately sur- 
rounding a hazardous area, which extends far enough to 
prevent adverse effects to personnel outside the zone. 

3.3.19.3 Warm Zone. The control zone outside the hot 
zone where personnel and equipment decontamination 
and hot zone support takes place. 

3.3.20 Crew. A team of two or more fire fighters. 

3.3.21* Cryogenic Liquid. A refrigerated liquefied gas having 
a boiling point below -130T (-90°C) at atmospheric pre.s- 
sure. [1991, 2005] 

3.3.22 Debilitating Illness or Injiuy. A condition that tempo- 
rarily or permanendy prevents a member of the fire depart- 
ment from engaging in normal duties and activities as a result 
of illness or injur)'. 

3.3.23 Defensive Operations. See 3.3.69.1. 

3.3.24 Disease. 

3.3.24.1* Communicable Disease. A disease that can be 
transmitted from one person to another. 

3.3.24.2 Infectious Disease. An illness or disease resulting 
from invasion of a host by disease-producing organisms 
such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. 

3.3.25 Drug. Any substance, chemical, over-the-counter medi- 
cation, or prescribed medication that can affect the performance 
of the fire fighter. 

3.3.26 Emergency Incident See 3.3.51.1. 

3.3.27 Emeigency Medical Services. The provision of treat- 
ment, such as first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic 



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life support, advanced life support, and other pre-hospital 
procedures including ambulance transportation, to patients. 

3.3.28 Emergency Operations. See 3.3.69.2. 

3.3.29 Eye Protection. See 3.3.73, Primary Eye Protection. 

3.3.30* Faceshield. A protective device commonly intended 
to shield the wearer's face, or porrions thereof, in addition to 
the eyes from certain hazards, depending on faceshield type. 

3.3.31 Facility. See 3.3.35, Fire Department Facility 

3.3.32 Fire Apparatus. A vehicle designed to be used under 
emergency conditions to transport personnel and equipment, 
and to .support the suppression of fires and mitigation of other 
hazardous situations. [1901, 2003] 

3.3.33 Fire Chief. The highest ranking officer in charge of a 
fire department. [1710, 2004] 

3.3.34* Fire Department. An organization providing rescue, 
fire suppres.sion, and related services. 

3.3.35* Fire Department Facility. Any building or area owned, 
operated, occupied, or used by a fire department on a routine 
basis. 

3.3.36 Fire Department Member. See 3.3.63, Member. 

3.3.37 Fire Fighting. 

3.3.37.1* Proximity Fire Fighting. Specialized fire-fighung 
operations that can include the activities of rescue, fire sup- 
pression, and property consei-vation at incidents involving 
fires producing veiy high levels of conductive, convective, 
and radiant heat such as aircraft fires, bulk flammable gas 
fires, and bulk flammable liquid fires. 

3.3.37.2 Structural Fire Fighting. The activities of rescue, 
fire suppression, and property conservation in buildings, 
enclosed structures, aircraft interiors, vehicles, vessels, air- 
craft, or like properties that are involved in a fire or emer- 
gency situation. [1710, 2004] 

3.3.37.3 Wildlaml Fire Fighting. The activities of fire sup- 
pression and property conservation in woodlands, forests, 
grasslands, brush, prairies, and other such vegetation, or any 
combination of vegetation, that is involved in a fire situation 
but is not within buildings or structures. [1977, 200,5] 

3.3.38 Fire Shelter. An item of protective equipment config- 
ured as an aluminized tent utilized for protection, by means of 
reflecting radiant heat, in a fire entrapment situation. 

3.3.39* Fire Suppression. The activities involved in control- 
ling and extinguishing fires. 

3.3.40 Goggle. A protective device intended to fit the face 
surrounding the eyes in order to shield the eyes from certain 
hazards, depending on goggle type. 

3.3.41* Hazard. A condition that presents the potential for 
harm or damage to people, property, or the environment. 

3.3.42 Hazardous Area. The area where members might be 
exposed to a hazard or hazardous atmosphere. A particular 
substance, device, event, circumstance, or condition that pre- 
sents a danger to members of the tire department. 

3.3.43 Hazardous Atmosphere. See 3.3.5.1. 

3.3.44 Hazardous Material. A substance (solid, liquid, or gas) 
that when released is capable of creating harm to people, the 
environment, and property. [472, 2002] 



3.3.45 Hazardous Materials Operations. See 3.3.69.3. 

3.3.46 Health and Fitness Coordinator. The person who, un- 
der the supervision of the fire department physician, has been 
designated by the department to coordinate and be respon- 
sible for the health and fitne.ss programs of the department. 

3.3.47* Health and Safely Officer. The member of the fire 
department assigned and authorized by the fire chief as the 
manager of the safety and health program. 

3.3.48 Health Data Base. A compilation of records and data 
that relates to the health experience of a group of individuals 
and is maintained in a manner such that it is retrievable for 
study and analysis over a period of time. 

3.3.49 Hot Zone. See 3.3.19.2. 

3.3.50 Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH). Any 

condition that would pose an immediate or delayed threat to 
life, cause irreversible adverse health effects, or interfere with 
an individual's ability to escape unaided from a hazardous en- 
vironment. [1670,2004] 

3.3.51 Incident. 

3.3.51.1 Emergency Incident. Any situation to which the 
emergency semces organization responds to deliver emer- 
gency services, including rescue, fire suppression, emergency 
medical care, special operations, law enforcement, and other 
forms of hazard control and mitigation. [1561, 2005] 

3.3.51.2 Rescue Incident. An emergency incident that pri- 
marily involves the rescue of persons subject to physical 
danger and that can include the provision of emergency 
medical services. 

3.3.51.3 Traffic Incident. An emergency road user occur- 
rence, a natural disaster, or other unplanned event that 
affects or impedes the normal flow of traffic. 

3.3.52 Incident Action Plan. The objectives reflecting the 
overall incident strategy, tactics, risk management, and mem- 
ber safety that are developed by the incident commander. In- 
cident action pkms are updated throughout the incident. 

3.3.53 Incident Commander (IC). The person who is respon- 
sible for all decisions relating to the management of the inci- 
dent and is in charge of the incident site. [472, 2002] 

3.3.54* Incident Management System (IMS). A system that de- 
fines the roles and responsibilities to be assumed by respond- 
ers and the standard operating procedures to be used in the 
management and direction of emergency incidents and other 
functions. 

3.3.55* Incident Safety Officer. A member of the command 
staff responsible for monitoring and assessing .safety hazards 
and unsafe situations, and for developing measures for ensur- 
ing personnel safety. 

3.3.56 Industrial Fire Brigade. An organized group of em- 
ployees within an industrial occupancy who are knowledge- 
able, trained, and skilled in at least basic fire-fighting opera- 
tions, and whose full-time occupation might or might not be 
the provision of fire suppression and related activities for their 
employer. [600, 2005] 

3.3.57* Infection Control Program. The fire department's for- 
mal policy and implementation of procedures relating to the 
control of infectious and communicable disease hazards where 
employees, patients, or the general public could be exposed to 



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blood, body fluids, or other potentially infectious materials in the 
fire department work environment. 

3.3.58 Infectious Disease. See 3.3.24.2. 

3.3.59 Interface Component. Any material, part, or subas- 
sembly used in the construction of the compliant product that 
provides limited protection to interface areas. 

3.3.60 life Safety Rope. Rope dedicated solely for the pur- 
pose of supporting people during rescue, fire-fighting, other 
emergency operations, or during training evolutions. 

3.3.61 Life Support. 

3.3.61.1 Advanced Life Support (ALS). Emergency medical 
treatment beyond basic life support level as defined by the 
medical authority having jurisdiction. 

3.3.61.2 Basic Life Support (BLS). Emergency medical 
treatment at a level as defined by the medical authority 
having jurisdiction. 

3.3.62* Liquefied Gas. Agas that, under its charged pressure, 
is partially liquid at 70°F (21°C). 

3.3.63* Member. A person involved in performing the duties 
and responsibilities of a fire department, under the auspices 
of the organization. 

3.3.64 Member Assistance Program (MAP). A generic term 
used to describe the various methods used in the fire depart- 
ment for the control of alcohol and other substance abuse, 
stress, and personal problems that adversely affect member 
performance. 

3.3.65 Member Organization. An organization formed to rep- 
resent the collective and individual rights and interests of the 
members of the fire department, such as a labor union or fire 
fighters' association. 

3.3.66 Occupational Illness. An illness or disease contracted 
through or aggravated by the performance of the duties, re- 
sponsibihties, and functions of a tire department member. 

3.3.67 Occupational Injury. An injury sust;xined during the 
performance of the duties, responsibilities, and functions of a 
fire department member. 

3.3.68 Offensive Operations. See 3.3.69.4. 

3.3.69 Operations. 

3.3.69.1* Defensive Operations. Actions that are intended 
to control a fire by limiting its spread to a defined area, 
avoiding the commitment of personnel and equipment to 
dangerous areas. 

3.3.69.2 Emergency Operations. Activities of the fire depart- 
ment relating to rescue, fire suppression, emergency medical 
care, and special operations, including response to the scene 
of the incident and all functions performed at the scene. 

3.3.69.3 Hazardous Materials Operations. All activities per- 
formed at the scene of a hiizardous materials incident that 
expose fire department members to the dangers of hazard- 
ous materials. 

3.3.69.4 Offensive Operations. Actions generally performed 
in the interior of involved structures that involve a direct at- 
tack on a tire to directly control and extinguish the fire. 

3.3.69.5* Special Operations. Those emergency incidents to 
which the fire department responds that require specific and 
advanced training and specialized tools and equipment. 



3.3.70 Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere. See 3.3.5.2. 

3.3.71* Particulates. Solid matter that is dispersed in air as a 
mixture. [1994,2007] 

3.3.72 Personnel Accountability System. A system that readily 
identifies both the location and function of all members oper- 
ating at an incident scene. 

3.3.73 Primary Eye Protection. A protective device specifically 
intended to shield the eyes from certain hazards while permit- 
tingvision. (See also 3.3.30, Faceshield; 3.3.40, Goggle; and3.3.90, 
Spectacles.) 

3.3.74 Procedure. An organizational directive issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction or by the department that estab- 
lishes a specific policy that must be followed. [1561, 2005] 

3.3.75* Protective Ensemble. Multiple elements of compliant 
protective clothing and equipment that when worn together 
provide protection from some risks, but not all risks, of emer- 
gency incident operations. 

3.3.76 Proximity Fire Fighting. See 3.3.37.1. 

3.3.77 Qualified Person. A person who, by possession of a 
recognized degree, certificate, professional standing, or skill, 
and who, by knowledge, training, and experience, has demon- 
strated the ability to deal with problems related to a particular 
subject matter, work, or project. [1451, 2002] 

3.3.78* Rapid Intervention Crew/Company (RIC). A mini- 
mum of two fully equipped members who are on-site and as- 
signed specifically to initiate the immediate rescue of injured 
or trapped members. 

3.3.79 Related Activities. Any and all functions that fire de- 
partment members can be called upon to perform in the ex- 
ecution of their duties. 

3.3.80 Rescue. Those activities directed at locating endan- 
gered per.sons at an emergency incident, removing those per- 
sons from danger, treating the injured, and providing for 
transport to an appropriate health care facility. (See also 3.3. 93, 
Technical Rescue. ) 

3.3.81 Rescue Incident. See 3.3.51.2. 

3.3.82* Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE). Devices that 
are designed to protect the respirator)' system against expo- 
sure to gases, vapors, or particulates. [1404, 2006] 

3.3.83 Risk. A measure of the probability and severity of 
adverse effects that result from an exposure to a hazard. 
[1451, 2002] 

3.3.84 Risk Management. The process of planning, organiz- 
ing, directing, and controlling the resources and activities of 
an organization in order to minimize detrimental effects on 
that organization. [1250, 2004] 

3.3.85 SCBA. Acronym for Self-Contained Breathing Appa- 
ratus. [1982, 1998] 

3.3.86 Seat Belt. A two-point lap belt, a three-point lap/ 
shoulder belt, or a four-point lap/shoulder harness for vehicle 
occupants designed to limit their movement in the event of an 
accident, rapid acceleration, or rapid deceleration by securing 
individuals safely to a vehicle in a seated position. (See also 
3.3. 95, Vehicle Safely Harness.) 

3.3.87 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). A respira- 
tor worn by the user that supplies a lespirable atmosphere that 



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is either carried in or generated by the apparatus and is inde- 
pendent of the ambient environment. 

3.3.87. 1 Closed-Circuit SCBA. A recirculation-type SCBA in 
which the exhaled gas is re-breathed by the wearer after the 
carbon dioxide has been removed from the exhalation gas 
and the oxygen content within the system has been re- 
stored from sources such as compressed breathing air, 
chemical oxygen, and liquid oxygen, or compressed gas- 
eous oxygen. [1981,2002] 

3.3.88 Service Test. The regular, periodic inspection and 
testing of apparatus and equipment, according to an estab- 
lished schedule and guidehne, to ensure that they are in safe 
and functional operating condition. 

3.3.89 Spedal Operations. See 3.3.69.5. 

3.3.90* Spectacles. A protective device intended to shield the 
wearer's eyes from certain hazards depending on the spectacle 
type. 

3.3.91 Structural Fire Fighting. See 3.3.37.2. 

3.3.92 Tactical Level Management Component (TLMC). A 

management unit identified in the incident management sys- 
tem commonly known as "division," "group," or "sector." 
[1561, 2005] 

3.3.93 Technical Rescue. The application of special knowl- 
edge, skills, and equipment to safely resolve unique and/or 
complex rescue situations. [1670, 2004] 

3.3.94 Traffic Incident. See 3.3.51.3. 

3.3.95 Vehicle Safety Harness. A restraint device for vehicle 
occupants designed to limit their movement in the event of an 
accident, rapid acceleration, or rapid deceleration by securing 
individuals safely to a vehicle either in a seated position or 
tethered to the vehicle. (See also 3.3.86, Seat Belt.) 

3.3.96 Warm Zone. See 3.3.19.3. 

3.3.97 Wildland Fire Fighting. See 3.3..37.3. 



Chapter 4 Fire Department Administration 

4.1 Fire Department Oi^anizational Statement. 

4.1.1* The fire department shall prepare and maintain a written 
statement or policy that establishes the existence of the fire de- 
partment, the services the fire department is authorized and ex- 
pected to perform, and the basic organizational stnicture. 

4.1.2* The fire department shall prepare and maintain written 
policies and standard operating procedures that document 
the organization structure, membership, roles and responsi- 
bilities, expected functions, and training requirements, in- 
cluding the following: 

(1) The types of standard evolutions that are expected to be 
pertbrmed and the evolutions that must be performed si- 
multaneously or in sequence for difi'erent types of situations 

(2) The minimum number of members who are required to 
perform each function or evolution and the manner in 
which the funcfion is to be performed 

(3) The number and types of apparatus and the number of per- 
sonnel diat will be dispatched to different types of incidents 

(4) The procedures that will be employed to initiate and man- 
age operations at the scene of an emergency incident 



4.1.3 The organizational statement and procedures shall be 
available for inspection by members or their designated repre- 
sentative. 

4.2 Risk Management Plan. 

4.2.1* The fire department shall develop and adopt a compre- 
hensive written risk management plan. 

4.2.2 The risk management plan shall at least cover the risks 
associated with the following: 

(1) Administration 

(2) Facilities 

(3) Training 

(4) Vehicle operations, both emergency and non-emergency 

(5) Protective clothing and equipment 

(6) Operations at emergency incidents (see Annex C) 

(7) Operations at non-emergency incidents 

(8) Other related activities 

4.2.3* The risk management plan shall include at least the 
following components (.see Annex D): 

(1) Risk identification — actual and potential hazards 

(2) Risk evaluation — likelihood of occurrence of a given haz- 
ard and severity of its consequences 

(3) Establishment of priorities for action — the degree of a 
hazard based upon the frequency and risk of occurrence 

(4) Risk control techniques — .solutions for elimination or 
mitigation of potential hazards; implementiition of best 
solution 

(5) Risk management monitoring — evaluation of effective- 
ness of risk control techniques 

4.3 Safety and Health Policy. 

4.3.1* The fire department shall adopt an official written de- 
partmental occupational safety and health policy that identi- 
fies specific goals and objectives for the prevention and elimi- 
nation of accidents and occupational injuries, exposures to 
communicable disease, illnesses, and fatalities. 

4.3.2 It shall be the policy of the fire department to seek and 
to provide for its members an occupational safety and health 
program that complies with this standard. 

4.3.3* The fire department shall evaluate the effectiveness of 
the occupational safety and health program at least once every 
3 years. 

4.3.3.1 An audit report of the findings shall be submitted to 
the fire chief and to the members of the occupational safety 
and health committee. 

4.4 Roles and Responsibilities. 

4.4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the fire department to 
research, develop, implement, and enforce an occupational 
safety and health program that recognizes and reduces the 
inherent risks involved in the operations of afire department. 

4.4.2 The fire department shall be responsible for compli- 
ance with all applicable laws and legal requirements with re- 
.spect to member safety and health. 

4.4.3* The fire department shall establisli and enforce rules, 
regulations, and standard operating procedures to meet the 
objectives of this standard. 

4.4.4 The fire department shall be responsible for develop- 
ing and implementing an accident investigation procedure. 



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4.4.5* All accidents, near misses, injuries, fatalities, occupa- 
tional illnesses, and exposures involving members shall be 
investigated. 

4.4.5.1 All accidents involving fire department vehicles, 
equipment, or fire department facilities shall be investigated. 

4.4.5.2 The fire department shall take the corrective action 
neces.sary to avoid repetitive occurrences of accidents and ex- 
posure to communicable diseases. 

4.4.5.3 Records of such investigations shall be kept in accor- 
dance with the applicable provisions of 4.6.1. 

4.4.6 Each individual member of the fire department shall 
cooperate, participate, and comply with the provisions of the 
occtipational safety and health program. 

4.4.7 It shall be the right of each member to be protected by ;m 
effective occupational safety and health program and to partici- 
pate or be represented in the research, development, implemen- 
tation, evaluation, and enforcement of the program. 

4.4.8 The naember organization, where such an organization 
exists, shall cooperate with the fire department by represent- 
ing the interests and the welfare of the members in the re- 
search, development, implementation, and evaluation of the 
occupational safety and health program. 

4.4.8.1 The member organization shall have the right to rep- 
resent the individual and collective rights of its members in 
the occupational safety and health program. 

4.5 Occupational Safety and Health Comnuttee. 

4.5.1* An occupational siifety and health committee shall be es- 
tablished and shall serve the fire chief in an advi.sory capacit)'. 

4.5.1.1 The committee shall include the following members: 

(1) The designated fire department health and safety officer 

(2) Representatives of fire department management 

(3) Individual members or representatives of member 
organizations 

4.5.1.2 The committee shall also be permitted to include 
other persons. 

4.5.1.3 Representatives of member organizations shall be se- 
lected by their respective organizations, but other committee 
members shall be appointed to the committee by the fire chief. 

4.5.2 The purpose of this committee shall be to conduct re- 
search, develop recommendations, and study and review mat- 
ters pertaining to occupational safety and health within the 
fire department. 

4.5.3* The committee shall hold regularly scheduled meet- 
ings and shall be permitted to hold special meetings whenever 
necessary. 

4.5.3.1 Regular meetings shall be held at least once every 
6 months. 

4.5.3.2 Written minutes of each meeting shall be retained 
and shall be made available to all members. 

4.6 Records. 

4.6.1* The fire department shall establish a data collection 
system and maintain permanent records of all accidents, inju- 
ries, illne.sses, exposures to infectious agents and communi- 
cable diseases, or deaths that are job related. 



4.6.2 The data collection system shall also maintain indi- 
vidual records of any occupational exposure to known or sus- 
pected toxic products or infectious or communicable diseases. 

4.6.3 The fire department shall ensure that a confidential 
health record for each member and a health data base are 
maintained. 

4.6.4* The fire department shall maintain training records for 
each member indicating dates, subjects covered, satisfactory 
completion, and, if any, certifications achieved. 

4.6.5 The fire department shall ensure that inspection, mainte- 
nance, repair, and service records are maintained for all vehicles 
and equipment used for emergency operations and training. 

4.7 Appointment of the Health and Safety Officer. 

4.7.1 The fire chief shall appoint a designated fire depart- 
ment health and safety ofticer. 

4.7.2 The health and safety officer shall meet the qualifications 
defined in NFPA 1 52 1 , Standard Jbr Fire Defjartrnent Safety Officer. 

4.7.3 The fire chief shall ensure that the fire department 
health and safety officer is given the authority to administer 
the health and .safety program. 

4.7.4 The health and safety officer shall perform the func- 
tions defined in NFPA 1.521. 

4.7.5 The fire department health and safety officer shall be 
responsible for the management of the occupational safety 
and health program. 

4.7.6 The fire chief shall make available such additional 
safety officers and resources as required to fulfill the require- 
ments of the occupational safety and health program to meet 
the requirements of NFPA 1521. 



Chapter 5 Training, Education, 
and Professional Development 

5.1 General Reqtiirements. 

5.1.1* The fire department shall establish and maintain a 
training, education, and professional development program 
with a goal of preventing occupational deaths, injuries, and 
illnesses. 

5.1.2 The fire department shall provide training, education, 
and professional development for all department members 
commensurate with the duties and fimctions that they are ex- 
pected to perform. 

5.1.3 The fire department shall establish training and educa- 
tion programs that provide new members initial training, pro- 
ficiency opportunities, and a method of skill and knowledge 
evaluation for duties assigned to the member prior to engag- 
ing in emergency operations. 

5.1.4* The fire department shall restrict the activities of new 
members during emergency operations until the member 
has demonstrated the skills and abilities to complete the 
tasks expected. 

5.1.5 The fire department shall prowde all members with train- 
ing and education on the deparmient's risk management plan. 

5.1.6 The fire depivrtment shall provide all members with train- 
ing and education on the department's written procedures. 



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1500-13 



5.1.7 The fire department shall provide all members with a 
training, education, and professional development program 
commensurate with the emergency medical services that are 
provided by the department. 

5.1.8 The fire department shall provide all members with a 
training and education program that covers the operation, 
hmitadon, maintenance, and retirement criteria for all as- 
signed personal protective equipment (PPE) expected to be 
utilized by members. 

5.1.9 As a duty function, members shall be responsible to main- 
tain proficiency in their skills and knowledge, and to avail them- 
selves of the professional development provided to the members 
through department training and education programs. 

5.1.10 Training programs for all members engaged in emer- 
gency operations shall include procedures for the safe exit 
and accountability of members during rapid evacuation, 
equipment failure, or other dangerous situations and events. 

5.1.11 All members who are likely to be involved in emer- 
gency operations shall be trained in the incident management 
and accountability system used by the fire department. 

5.2 Member Qualifications. 

5.2.1 All members who engage in structural fire fighting shall 
meet the requirements of NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter 
Professional Qualifications. 

5.2.2* All driver/operators shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 1002, Standard fw Fire Apparatus Driver/Operator Professional 
Qualifications. 

5.2.3 All aircraft rescue fire fighters (ARFF) shall meet the 
requirements of NFPA 1003, Standard fo-r Airpori Fire Fighter Pro- 
fessional Qualifications. 

5.2.4 All fire officers shall meet the requirements of NFPA 1021 , 
Standard for Fire Officer Professional Qualifications. 

5.2.5 All wildland fire fighters shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 1051, Standard for Wildland Fire Fighter Professional Qualifi- 
cations. (See Annex E. ) 

5.2.6* All members responding to hazardous materials inci- 
dents shall meet the operations level as required in NFPA 472, 
Standard, for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous 
Materiah Incidents. 

5.3 Training Requirements. 

5.3.1* The fire department shall adopt or develop training 
and education curricuhims that meet the minimum require- 
ments outlined in professional qualification standards cover- 
ing a member's a.ssigned function. 

5.3.2 The fire department shall provide training, education, 
and professional development programs as required to sup- 
port the minimum qualifications and certifications expected 
of its members. 

5.3.3 Members shall practice a.ssigned skill sets on a regular 
basis but not less than annually. 

5.3.4 The fire department shall provide specific traitiing to 
members when written policies, practices, procedures, or 
guidelines are changed and/or updated. 

5.3.5* The respiratory protection training program shall meet 
the requirements of NFPA 1404, Standard for Fire Service Respi- 
ratory Protection Iraining. 



5.3.6 Members who perform wildland fire fighting shall be 
trained at least annually in the proper deployment of an ap- 
proved fire shelter. 

5.3.7* All live fire training and exercises shall be conducted 
in accordance with NFPA 1403, Standard on Live Fire Training 
Evolutions. 

5.3.8* All training and exercises shall be conducted under the 
direct supervision of a qualified instructor. 

5.3.9* All members who are likely to be involved in emergency 
medical services shall meet the training requirements of the 
AHJ. 

5.3.10* Members shall be fully trained in the care, use, inspec- 
tion, maintenance, and limitations of the protective clothing 
and protective equipment assigned to them or available for 
their use. 

5.3.11 All members shall meet the training requirements as 
outlined in NFPA 1561, Standard on Emergency Services Incident 
Management System. 

5.3.12 All members shall meet the training requirements as 
oudined in NFPA 1581, Standard on Fire Department Infection 
Control Program. 

5.4 Special Operations Training. 

5.4.1 The fire department shall pro\'ide specific and ad- 
vanced training to members who engage in special operations 
as a technician. 

5.4.2 The fire department shall provide specific training to 
members who are likely to respond to special operations inci- 
dents in a support role to special operations technicians. 

5.4.3 Members expected to perform hazardous materials 
mitigation activities shall meet the training requirements of a 
technician as outlined in NFPA 472. 

5.4.4 Members expected to perform technical operations at 
the technician level as defined in NFPA 1670, Standard on Op- 
erations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents, 
shall meet the training requirements specified in NFPA 1006, 
Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications. 

5.5 Meniber Proficiency. 

5.5.1 The fire department shall develop a recurring profi- 
ciency cycle with the goal of preventing skill degradation and 
potential for injury and death of members. 

5.5.2 The fire department shall develop and maintain a sys- 
tem to monitor and measure training progress and activities of 
its members. 

5.5.3* The fire department shall provide an annual skills check 
to verify minimum professional qualifications of its members. 



Chapter 6 Fire Apparatus, Equipment, and 
Drivers/Operators 

6.1 Fire Department Apparatus. 

6.1.1* The fire department shall consider .safety and health as 
primary concerns in the specification, design, construction, 
acquisition, operation, maintenance, inspection, and repair of 
all fire department apparatus. 



2007 Edition 



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FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROG1U.M 



6.1.1.1* The fire department shall specify restraint devices for 
fire apparatus, including those restraint devices for emer- 
gency medical service (EMS) members operating in the pa- 
tient compartment of the ambulance. 

6.1.2 All new fire apparatus shall be specified and ordered to 
meet the applicable requirements of NFPA 1901, Standard for 
Aul.omol.ive Fire Apparatus. 

6.1.3 All new wildland fire apparatus shall be specified and 
ordered to meet the requirements of NFPA 1906, Standard for 
Wildland Fire Apparatus. 

6.1.4 All marine fire-fighdng vessels shall be specified and 
ordered to meet the requirements of NFPA 1925, Standard on 
Marine Fire-Fighting Vessels. 

6.1.5* Where tools, equipment, or respiratory protection are 
carried within enclosed seating areas of fire apparatus or the 
patient compartment of an ambulance, such items shall be 
secured by either a positive mechanical means of holding the 
item in its stowed position or by placement in a compartment 
with a positive latching door. 

6.1.6 When fire apparatus is refurbished, it shall be specified 
and ordered to meet the applicable requirements of NFPA 1912, 
Standard for Fire Apj>aratus Refurbishing. 

6.1.7 Fire departments that operate their own fixed-wing or 
rotaiy aircraft for fire department operations shall provide 
four-point restraints for all pilots and passengers, not includ- 
ing any EMS patients. 

6.1.7.1 Members performing hoist rescue in the passenger 
area of the aircraft shall be secured by a vehicle safety harness 
or seat belt system. 

6.2 Drivers/ Operators of Fire Department Apparatus. 

6.2.1* Fire apparatus shall be operated only by members who 
have successfully completed an approved driver training pro- 
gram commensurate with the type of apparatus the member 
will operate or by trainee drivers who are under the supervi- 
sion of a qualified driver. 

6.2.2* The driver of a fire department vehicle shall be required 
to possess a valid driver's license for the class of vehicle, as speci- 
fied by the AHJ. 

6.2.2.1 Fire department vehicles shall be operated in compli- 
ance with all applicable traffic laws, including special provi- 
sions pertaining to emergency vehicles as established by the 
AHJ, as well as specific rules, regulations, and procedures 
adopted by the fire department 

6.2.3* The fire department shall establish specific rules, regu- 
lations, and procedures relating to the operation of fire de- 
partment vehicles in an emergency mode, including guide- 
lines to establish when emergency response is authorized and 
when emergency response is not authorized. 

6.2.4* Drivers of fire apparatus shall be directly responsible 
for the safe and prudent operation of the vehicles under all 
conditions. 

6.2.4.1 When the driver is under the direct supervision of an 
oiiicer, that officer shall also assume responsibility for the driver's 
actions. 

6.2.5 Drivers shall not move fire apparatus until all persons 
on the vehicle are seated and secured with seat belts in 



approved riding positions, other than as specifically al- 
lowed in this chapter. 

6.2.6 Drivers of fire apparatus shall obey all traffic control 
signals and signs and all laws and rules of the road of the 
jurisdiction for the operation of motor vehicles. 

6.2.7* The fire department shall develop standard operating 
procedures for safely driving fire apparatus during non- 
emergency travel and emergency response and shall include 
specific criteria for vehicle speed, crossing intersections, tra- 
versing railroad grade crossings, the use of emergency warn- 
ing devices, and the backing of fire apparatus. 

6.2.7.1* Procedures for all responses shall emphasize that the 
safe arrival of fire apparatus to the incident scene is the first 
priority. 

6.2.8* During emergency response, drivers of fire apparatus 
shall bring the vehicle to a complete stop under any of the 
following circumstances: 

( 1 ) When directed by a law enforcement officer 

(2) At red traffic lights 

(3) At stop signs 

(4) At negative right-of-way intersections 

(5) At bhnd intersections 

(6) 'When the driver cannot account for all lanes of traffic in 
an intersecticm 

(7) When other intersection hazards are present 

(8) When encountering a stopped school bus with Hashing 
warning lights 

6.2.9 Drivers shall proceed through intersections only when the 
driver can account for all lanes of traffic in the intersection. 

6.2.10* During emergency response or non-emergency travel, 
drivers of fire apparatus shall come to a complete stop at all 
unguarded railroad grade crossings and ensure that it is safe 
to proceed before crossing the railroad track(s). 

6.2.11 Drivers shall use caution when approaching and cross- 
ing any guarded railroad grade crossing. 

6.2.12 The fire department .shall include information on the 
potential hazards of retarders, such as engine, transmission, 
and driveline retarders, in the driver training program and 
shall develop written procedures pertaining to the use of such 
retarders. 

6.2.13 The fire department shall develop written procedures 
requiring drivers to discontinue the use of manual brake lim- 
iting valves, frequently labeled as a "wet road/dry road" switch, 
and requiring that the valve/switch remains in the "dry road" 
position. 

6.2.14* Where members are authorized to respond to inci- 
dents or to fire stations in private vehicles, the fire departinent 
shall establish specific rules, regulations, and procedures relat- 
ing to the operation of private vehicles in an emergency mode. 

6.2.14.1 These rules and regulations shall be at least equal 
to the provisions regulating the operation of fire depart- 
ment vehicles. 

6.2.14.2* These rules and regulations shall also apply to the 
use of emergency lighting equipment, audible warning de- 
vices, or both on private vehicles. 

6.2.14.2.1 The rules and regulations shall specify the proce- 
dures for use of emergency lighting equipment and audible 



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1500-1,5 



warning devices and shall be in compliance with the motor 
vehicle laws of the jurisdiction. 

6.2.14.2.2 Emergency lighting equipment and audible warn- 
ing devices shall not be installed without the fire department's 
approval. 

6.3 Riding in Fire Apparatus. 

6.3.1* All persons riding in fire apparatus shall be seated and 
belted securely by seat belts in approved riding positions at 
any time the vehicle is in motion other than as allowed in 6.3.4 
and 6.3.5. Standing or riding on tail steps, sidesteps, running 
boards, or in any other exposed position shall be .specifically 
prohibited. 

6.3.2 Seat belts shall not be released or loosened for any pur- 
pose while the vehicle is in motion, including the donning of 
respiratory protection equipment or protective clothing. 

6,3.3* Members actively peiforming necessary emergency 
medical care while the vehicle is in motion shall be secured to 
the vehicle by a seat belt, or by a vehicle .safety harness de- 
signed for occupant restraint, to the extent consistent with the 
effective provision of .such emergency medical care. 

6.3.3.1 All other persons in the vehicle shall be seated and 
belted in approved riding positions while the vehicle is in 
motion. 

6.3.4* Fire departments permitting hose loading operations 
while the vehicle is in motion shall develop written standard 
operating procedures addressing all safety aspects. 

6.3.5* Fire departments permitting tiller training, where both 
the instructor and the trainee are at the tiller position, shall 
develop written standard operating procedures addressing all 
safety aspects. 

6.3.6* Helmets shall be provided for and used by persons 
riding in open cab apparatus or open tiller seats. 

6.3.7* Eye protection shall be provided for members riding in 
open cab apparattis or open tiller seats. 

6.3.8* On existing fire apparatus where there is an insufficient 
number of seats available for the number of members as- 
-signed to or expected to ride on that piece of apparatus, alter- 
nate means of transportation that provide seated and belted 
positions shall be used. 

6.4 Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair of Fire Apparatus. 

6.4.1* All fire apparattis shall be in.spected at least weekly, 
within 24 hours after any use or repair, and prior to being 
placed in service or used for emergency purposes, in order to 
identify and correct unsafe conditions. 

6.4.2 A preventive maintenance program shall be estab- 
lished, and records shall be maintained as specified in 4.6.5. 

6.4.3 Inspection, maintenance, and repair of fire apparatus 
•shall be conducted in accordance with NFPA 1915, Slandardfor 
Fire Apparatus Preventive Maintenance Program. 

6.4.4* The tire department shall establish a list of major de- 
fects to be utilized to evaluate when a vehicle shall be declared 
unsafe. 

6.4.4.1 Any fire department vehicle found to be unsafe shall 
be placed out of service until repaired. 



6.4.5 All repairs to fire department apparatus shall be per- 
formed by personnel meeting the requirements of NFPA 1071, 
Slandardfor Emergenq Vehicle Technician Professitmal Qualifications, 
or personnel trained to meet the requirements identified by the 
manufacturers in their specifications and procedures for fire de- 
partment vehicles and protective equipment. 

6.4.6 Fire pumps on apparatus shall be service tested in ac- 
cordance with the appUcable requirements of NFPA 1911, 
Standard for Service Tests of Fire Pump Systems on Fire Apparatus. 

6.4.7 All aerial devices shall be inspected and service tested in 
accordance with the applicable requirements of NFPA 1914, 
Standard for Testing Fire Department Aerial Devices. 

6.4.8 All fire apparatus .shall be cleaned and disinfected in 
accordance with NFPA 1581, Standard on Fire Department Infoc- 
tion Control Program. 

6.5 Tools and Equipment. 

6.5.1 The fire department shall consider safety and health as 
primary concerns in the specification, design, con.struction, 
acquisition, operation, maintenance, inspection, and repair of 
all tools and equipment. 

6.5.2 The hearing con.servation objectives of this standard 
shall be taken into account in the acquisition of new power 
tools and power equipment. 

6.5.3 All new fire department ground ladders shall be speci- 
fied and ordered to meet the applicable requirements of 
NFPA 1931, Standard for Manufacturer's Design of Fire Depatiment 
Ground, Ladders. 

6.5.4 All new fire hose shall be specified and ordered to meet 
the applicable requirements of NFPA 1961, Standard <m Fire Hose. 

6.5.5 All new fire department spray nozzles shall be specified 
and ordered to meet the applicable requirements of NFPA 1964, 
Standard for Spiny Nozzles. 

6.5.6* All equipment canied on fire apparatus or designated for 
training shall be in.spected at least weekly and within 24 hours 
after any use. 

6.5.7 Inventory records shall be maintained for the equip- 
ment carried on each vehicle and for equipment designated 
for training. 

6.5.8 All equipment carried on fire apparatus or designated 
for training shall be tested at least annually in accordance with 
manufactvirers' instructions and applicable standards. 

6.5.9 Fire-fighting equipment found to be defective or in un- 
serviceable condition shall be removed from service and re- 
paired or replaced. 

6.5.10 All fire department equipment and tools shall be 
cleaned and disinfected in accordance with NFPA 1581. 

6.5.11 All ground ladders shall be inspected and service 
tested in accordance with the applicable requirements of 
NFPA 1932, Standard on Use, Maintenance, and Service Testing of 
In-Service Fire Department Ground Ladders. 

6.5.12 All fire hose shall be inspected and service tested in 
accordance with the applicable requirements of NFPA 1962, 
Standard for the Inspection, Care, and U.se of Fire Hose, Couplings, 
and Nozzles and the Service Testing of Fire Hose. 



2007 Edition 



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FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



6.5.13 All fire extingviishers shall be inspected and tested in 
accordance with the applicable requirements of NFPA 10, 

Standard for Portable Fire Extinguuhers. 

6.5.14 All lire department powered rescue tools shall meet the 
requirements of NFPA 1936, Standard on Powered Rescue Tools. 



Chapter 7 Protective Clothing 
and Protective Equipment 

7.1 General. 

7.1.1* The fire department shall provide each member with 
protective clothing and protective equipment that is designed 
to provide protection from the hazards to which the member 
is likely to be exposed and is suitable for the tasks that the 
member is expected to perform. 

7.1.2* Protective clothing and protective equipment shall be 
used whenever the member is exposed or potentially exposed 
to the hazards for which it is provided. 

7.1.3* Structural fire-fighting protective clothing shall be 
cleaned at least every 6 months as specified in NFPA 1851, 
Standard on Selection, Care, and Maintenance of Structural Fire 
Fighting Protective Ensembles. 

7.1.4* Cleaning processes for protective clothing ensembles 
shall be as recommended by the protective clothing manufac- 
tvirer for the types of contaminants and for the materials that 
are to be cleaned. 

7.1.5* Where station/work tmiforms are worn by members, 
such station/work uniforms shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 1975, Standard on Station/Work Unifonns for Fire and Emer- 
gency Services. 

7.1.6 While on duty, members shall not wear any clothing 
that is unsafe due to poor thermal stability. 

7.1.7* The fire department shall provide for the cleaning of 
protective clothing and station/work uniforms. 

7.1.7.1 Such cleaning shall be performed either by a cleaning 
service that is familiar with the proper procedures and equipped 
to handle contaminated clothing or by a fire department facility 
that is equipped to handle contaminated clodiing. 

7.1.7.2 Wliere such cleaning is conducted in fire stations, the 
fire department shall provide at least one washing machine for 
this purpose in the designated cleaning area specified in 
NFPA 1 58 1 , Standard on Fire Department Infection Control Program. 

7.2 Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting. 

7.2.1* Members who engage in or are exposed to the hazards 
of structural fire fighting shall be provided with and shall use a 
protective ensemble that shall meet the applicable require- 
ments of NFPA 1971, Standard on Protective Ensembles fcrr Struc- 
tural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting. 

7.2.2* The protective coat and the protective trousers shall 
have at least a 2 in. (50 mm) overlap of all layers so there is no 
gaping of the total thermal protection when the protective 
garments are worn. 

7.2.2.1 The minimum overlap shall be determined by mea- 
suring the garments on the wearer, without SCBA, in both of 
the following positions: 



( 1 ) Position A — standing, hands together reaching overhead 
as high as possible 

(2) Position B — standing, hands together reaching over- 
head, with body bent forward at a 90-degree angle, to the 
side (either left or right), and to the back 

7.2.3 Single-piece protective coveralls shall not be required 
to have an overlap of all layers, provided there is continuous 
composite protection. 

7.2.4 Gloves. 

7.2.4.1 Fire departments that provide protective coats with 
protective resilient wri.stlets secured through a thumb open- 
ing shall be permitted to provide gloves of the gauntlet type 
for use with these protective coats. 

7.2.4.2* Fire departments that do not provide such wristlets 
attached to all protective coats shall provide gloves of the wrist- 
let type or other interface component for use with these pro- 
tective coats. 

7.2.5 The fire department shall adopt and maintain a protec- 
tive clothing and protective equipment program that ad- 
dresses the selection, care, maintenance, and use of structural 
fire-fighting protective ensembles, and training in its use. 

7.2.5.1 The selection, care, and maintenance of protective 
ensembles for structural fire Fighting shall be as specified in 
NFPA 1851. 

7.2.5.2 Specific responsibilities shall be assigned for inspec- 
tion and maintenance. 

7.2.6 The fire department shall require all members to wear 
all the protective ensemble specific to the operation. 

7.3 Protective Clothing for Proximity Fire-Fighting Operations. 

7.3.1* Members whose primary responsibility is proximity fire- 
fighting operations and members who participate in proxim- 
ity fire-fighting training shall be provided with and shall use 
proximity fire-fighting protective ensembles that are compli- 
ant with NFPA 1971. 

7.3.2 The proximity protective coat and proximity protective 
trousers shall have at least a 2 in. (50 mm) overlap of all layers 
so there is no gaping of the total thermal and radiant heat 
protection when the protective garments are worn. 

7.3.2.1 The minimum overlap shall be determined by mea- 
suring the garments on the wearer, without SCBA, in both of 
the following positions: 

(1) Position A — standing, hands together reaching overhead 
as high as possible 

(2) Position B — standing, hands together reaching over- 
head, with body bent forward at a 90-degree angle, to the 
side (either left or right), and to the back 

7.3.3 Single-piece proximity protective coveralls shall not be 
required to have an overlap of all layers, provided there is 
continuous full thermal and radiant heal protection. 

7.3.4 Where SCBA is worn over or outside the proximity pro- 
tective garment, the fire department shall inform the member 
of the potential high levels of radiant heat that can resvdt in 
the failure of the SCBA. 

7.3.4.1 The fire department shall require additional ap- 
proved radiant reflective criteria, including but not Umited to 
a protective cover, for the expected proximity fire-fighting ex- 
posures when the SCBA is worn over or outside the proximity 
protective garment. 



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PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 



1500-17 



7.4* Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations. 

7.4.1 Members who perform emergency medical care or are 
othenvise likely to be exposed to blood or other body fluids shall 
be provided with emergency medical garments, emergency 
medical face protection devices, emergency medical examina- 
tion gloves, emergency medical work gloves, and emergency 
medical footwear or emei^ency medical footwear covere that are 
compliant with NFPA 1999, Standard onPmteclive Clothing for Emer- 
gency Medical Operations. 

7.4.2* Members shall wear emergency medical examination 
gloves when providing emergency medical care. 

7.4.2.1 Patient care shall not be initiated before the gloves 
are in place. 

7.4.2.2 Emergency medical work gloves shall be permitted to 
be used in place of emergency medical examinadon gloves in 
situations involving physical hazards. 

7.4.3* The fire department shall provide all fire fighters who 
perform emergency medical care or are likely to be exposed to 
airborne infectious disease with NIOSH-approved Type C res- 
pirators certified to meet 42 CFR 84, Approval ofrespiratoty pro- 
tective devices. 

7.4.4 Each member shall use emergency medical garments and 
emergency medical face protection devices prior to any patient 
care duringwhich large splashes of body fluids can occur, such as 
childbirth or situations involving spurting blood. 

7.4.5 Contaminated emergency medical protective clothing 
shall be cleaned and disinfected or disposed of as specified in 
NFPA 1581. 

7.4.5.1 Emergency medical examination gloves and emer- 
gency medical footwear covers shall not be reused and shall be 
disposed of after use. 

7.4.5.2 Any item of emergency medical protective clothing 
that is not designated for "multiple use" shall not be reused 
and shall be dispo.sed of after use. 

7.5* Chemical-Protective Clothing for Hazardous Materials 
Emergency Operations. 

7.5.1* Vapor-Protective Ensembles. 

7.5.1.1 Members who engage in operations during hazard- 
ous materials emergencies where there is the potential for ex- 
posure to known chemicals in gaseous or vapor form diat pose 
skin hazards, to chemicals that have not been identified, or to 
chemical environments that are classified as immediately dan- 
gerous to life or health (IDLH) shall be provided with and 
shall use vapor-protective ensembles that meet the applicable 
requirements of NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor-Protective En- 
sembles fm~ Hazardous Materials Emergencies. 

7.5.1.2 Prior to use of the ensemble, members who engage in 
hazardous materials operations shall consult the technical 
data package, manufacturers' instructions, and manufacturers' 
recommendations as provided and required by NFPA 1991, to 
ensure that the ensemble is designed to provide the member 
protection for the .specific hitzardous materials emergency. 

7.5.1.3 All members who engage in operations during haz- 
ardous materials emergencies where there is potential for ex- 
posure to known chemicals in gaseous or vapor form that pose 
skin hazards, to chemicals that have not been identified, or to 
chemical environments that are classified as IDLH shall be 



provided with and shall use SCBA that meet the applicable 
requirements of Section 7.11. 

7.5.1.3.1 Additional outside air supplies shall be permitted to 
be utilized in conjunction with SCBA, provided such systems 
are positive pressure and have been certified by NIOSH under 
42 CFR 84, Approval ofrespiratoiy protective devices. 

7.5.1.4 Vapor-protective ensembles, certified to the 2005 edi- 
tion of NFPA 1991, shall be permitted to be used for protec- 
tion from chemical agents, biological agents, and radioactive 
particulate encountered during terrorism incidents. 

7.5.1.5 Where the risk a.ssessment shows that members will 
also be exposed to liquefied gases, members shall be provided 
with and shall use vapor-protective ensembles that meet the 
additional optional requirements for liquefied gas protection 
in NFPA 1991. 

7.5.1.6 Where the risk assessment shows that members will 
also be exposed to potential chemical flash fires, members 
shall be provided with and shall use vapor-protective en- 
sembles that meet the additional optional requirements for 
chemical flash fire protection in NFPA 1991. 

7.5.1.7* Vapor-protective ensembles shall not be used alone 
for any fire-fighting applications or for protection from ioniz- 
ing radiation, cryogenic liquid hazards, or explosive atmo- 
spheres. 

7.5.1.8 Vapor-protective ensembles shall be permitted to be 
used for protection from liquid splashes or solid chemicals 
and particulates. 

7.5.2* Liquid Splash-Protective Ensembles and Clothing. 

7.5.2.1 Members who engage in operations during hazard- 
ous materials emergencies that will expose them to known 
chemicals in liquid-splash form shall be provided with and 
shall use liquid splash-protective ensembles or clothing that 
meet the applicable requirements of NFPA 1992, Standard on 
Liquid Splash-Protective Ensembles and Clothing for Hazardous Ma- 
terials Emergencies. 

7.5.2.2 Prior to use of the ensemble or clothing, members 
who engage in hazardous materials operations shall consult 
the technical data package, manufacturers' instructions, and 
manufacturers' recommendations as provided and required 
by NFPA 1992, to ensure that the ensemble or clothing is de- 
signed to provide the member protection for the specific haz- 
ardous chemical emergency. 

7.5.2.3 All members who engage in operations during haz- 
ardous materials emergencies that will expose them to known 
chemicals in liquid-splash form shall be provided with and 
shall use either SCBA that meet the applicable requirements 
of 7.11.1, or other respiratory protective devices that are certi- 
fied by NIOSH under 42 CFR 84 as suitable for the specific 
chemical environment. 

7.5.2.3.1 Additional outside air supplies shall be permitted to 
be utilized in conjunction with SCBA, provided such systems 
are positive pressure and have been certified by NIOSH under 
42 CFR 84. 

7.5.2.4 Liquid splash-protective ensembles or clothing shall 
not be used for protection from chemicals in vapor form or 
from unknown liquid chemicals or chemical mixtures. 

7.5.2.4.1 Only vapor-protective ensembles specified in 7.5.1 
and SCBA .specified in 7.11.1 shall be considered for use. 



2007 Edition 



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FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY i\ND HEALTH PROGRAM 



7.5.2.5 Liquid splash-protective ensembles or clothing shall 
not be used for protection from chemicals or specific chemi- 
cal mixtures that have a vapor pressure greater than 5 mm Hg 
at 77°F (25°C) and have known or suspected carcinogenicity 
as indicated by one of the following documents: 

( 1 ) Sax 's Dangerous Propmiks of Industrial Materials 

(2) NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards 

7.5.2.6 Liquid splash-protective suits shall not be used for 
protection from chemicals or specific chemical mixtures with 
skin toxicity notations as indicated by the American Confer- 
ence of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, TVLs® andBEIs®, 
and that have a vapor pressure greater than 5 mm Hg at 77°F 
(25°C). 

7.5.2.7 Where the risk assessment shows that members will 
also be exposed to potential chemical flash fires, members 
shall be provided with and shall use liquid splash-protective 
ensembles and clothing that meet the additional optional re- 
quirements for chemical flash fire protection in NFPA 1992. 

7.5.2.8* Liquid splash-protective suits shall not be used alone 
for any fire-fighting applications or for protection from ioniz- 
ing radiation, biological, liquefied gas or cryogenic liquid haz- 
ards, or from flammable or explosive atmospheres, or from 
hazardous chemical vapor atmospheres. 

7.5.2.9 Liquid splash-protective suits shall be permitted to be 
used for protection from solid chemicals and particulates. 

7.5.3* Protective Ensembles for CBRN Terrorism Incidents. 

7.5.3.1 Members who engage in assessment, extrication, res- 
cue, triage, treatment decontamination, and support function 
operations for incidents involving CBRN terrorism agents 
shall be provided with the protective ensembles and protective 
equipment specified in 7.5.3.3 through 7.5.3.6. 

7.5.3.2* The approach to any potentially hazardous atmo- 
sphere, including biological hazards, shall be made with a 
plan that includes an assessment of the hazard and exposure 
potential, respiratory protection needs, entry conditions, exit 
routes, and decontamination strategies. 

7.5.3.2.1 Before emergency response personnel are assigned 
to operations involving CBRN terrorism agents, the incident 
commander shall perform a risk assessment of the incident to 
determine the type of protective ensembles and other protec- 
tive equipment that is needed. 

7.5.3.3 Where the risk assessment indicates one or more of 
the following, all members who will be performing the opera- 
tions shall be provided with and shall use at least ensembles 
certified as compliant with NFPA 1991: 

(1) There is an ongoing release of the agent with likely gas/ 
vapor exposure. 

(2) The identity or concentration of the vapor or liquid agent 
is unknown. 

(3) Liquid contact is expected, and no direct skin contact can 
be permitted. 

(4) Exposure of members could be at levels that would result in 
substantial possibility of immediate death, immediate seri- 
ous incapacitittion, or a severely impaired ability to escape. 

(5) Most victims in the area appear to be unconscious or dead. 

(6) Members will be close to the point of release. 



7.5.3.3.1 All members who engage in operations for inci- 
dents involving CBRN terrorism agents and who are required 
to wear vapor-protective ensembles that meet NFPA 1991 shaU 
be provided with and shall use either of the following respira- 
tory protection: 

(1) SCBA that meet the applicable requirements of 7.11.1, 
provided that the SCBA is fully encapsulated by the pro- 
tective ensemble 

(2) Open-circuit SCBA that are certified by NIOSH as compliant 
with NIOSH Standard for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and 
Nuclear (CBRN) Open Circuit Self-Contained BreathmgApparatvs 
(SCBA) 

7.5.3.4 Where the risk assessment indicates one or more of 
the following, all members who will be performing the opera- 
tions for incidents involving CBRN terrorism agents shall be 
provided with and shall use at least Class 2 ensembles certified 
as compliant with NFPA 1994, Standard on Protective Ensembles 
for First Responders to CBliN Terrorism, incidents: 

(1) Exposure is at IDLH conditions. 

(2) The agent or threat has generally been identified. 

(3) The actual release has subsided except for where the poten- 
tial for direct contact with residual vapor or gas is probable. 

(4) Surfaces at the emergency scene are highly contaminated. 

(5) Victims in the area are symptomatic, not ambulatory, but 
showing signs of movement. 

7.5.3.4.1 All members who engage in operations for inci- 
dents involving CBRN terrorism agents and who are required 
to wear NFPA 1994 Class 2 ensembles shall use open-circuit 
SCBA that are certified by NIOSH as compliant with NIOSH 
Standard for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear 
(CBRN) Open Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). 

7.5.3.5 Where the risk assessment indicates one or more of 
the following, all members who will be peiforming the opera- 
tions for incidents involving CBRN terrorism agents shall be 
provided with and shall use at least Class 3 ensembles certified 
as compliant with NFPA 1994: 

(1) Exposure is at levels below IDLH conditions. 

(2) Exposure to liquids is expected to be incidental through 
contact with contaminated surfaces or victims well after 
the release has occurred. 

(3) Victims are symptomatic but ambulatory. 

7.5.3.5.1 All members who engage in operations for inci- 
dents involving CBRN terrorism agents and who are required 
to wear NFPA 1994 Class 3 ensembles shall use one of the 
following types of respirators: 

( 1 ) Open-circuit SCBA that are certified by NIOSH as compli- 
ant with NIOSH Standard for Chemical, Biological, Radiologi- 
cal, and Nuclear (CBRN) Open Circuit Self-Contained Brecith- 
ing Apparatus (SCBA) 

(2) Air-purifying respirators (APRs) with a minimum rated 
service life of at least 30 minutes that are certified by 
NIOSH as compliant with NIOSH Standard for Chemical, 
Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Full Facepiece Air 
Purifying Respirator (AFR) 

7.5,3.6* Where the risk assessment indicates the potential 
presence of biological or radiological particulates only, all 
members who will be performing the operations for incidents 
involving CBRN terrorism agents shall be provided with and 
shall use at least Class 4 ensembles certified as compliant with 
NFPA 1994. 



2007 Edition 



PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 



1500-19 



7.5.3.6.1 All members who engage in operations during 
chemical and biological terrorism incidents and who are re- 
qviired to wear NFPA 1994 Class 4 ensembles shall use one of 
the following types of respirators: 

( 1 ) Open-circuit SCBA that are certified by NIOSH as compli- 
ant with NIOSH Standard for Chemical, Biological, Radiologi- 
cal, and Nuclear (CBRN) Open Circuit Self-Contained Breath- 
ing Apparatus (SCBA) 

(2) APR with a minimvnn rated service life of at least 30 min- 
utes that are certified by NIOSH as compliant with 
NIOSH Standard for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and 
Nuclear (CBRN) F^ill Facepiece Air Purifying Respirator (APR) 

7.5.3.7 Vapor-protective ensembles, certified as compliant 
with NFPA 1991, that are used in operations involving any ex- 
posure to CBRN terrorism agents, shall be decontaminated 
following that use or shall be disposed of where decontamina- 
tion will not stop the chemical or biological assault on the 
ensemble and the protective qualities would be diminished or 
nullified. 

7.5.3.8 All NFPA 1994 Class 2, Class 3, and Class 4 protective 
ensembles and NFPA 1971 protective ensembles with the CBRN 
option that are used in operations involving any exposure to 
chemical or biological terrorism agents shall be disposed of fol- 
lowing that use. 

7.5.3.9 Disposal shall be in accordance with apphcable local, 
state/provincial, and federal regulations. 

7.5.3.10 All protective en.sembles that are to be used for inci- 
dents involving CBRN terrorism agents shall be inspected and 
maintained as required by the technical data package and the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

7.6 Inspection, Maintenance, and Disposal of Chemical- 
Protective Clothing. 

7.6.1 All chemical-protecdve clothing shall be inspected and 
maintained as required by the technical data package, manufac- 
turers' instructions, and manufacturers' recommendations. 

7.6.2 All chemical-protective clothing that receives an exposure 
to a chemical or a chemical mixture shall be disposed of if decon- 
t£imination will not stop the chemical iissault on the garment and 
the protective qualities will be diminished or nullified. 

7.6.2.1 Disposal shall be in accordance with applicable state 
or federal regulations. 

7.7 Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Fire 
Fighting. 

7.7.1* The fire department shall establish standard operating 
procedures for the use of wildland protective clothing and 
equipment. 

7.7.2 Members who engage in or are exposed to the hazards 
of wildland fire-fighting operations shall be provided with and 
use protective garments and protective equipment that meet 
the requirements of NFPA 1977, Standard on Protective Clothing 
and Ecpupmenl for Wildland Fire Fighting. 

7.7.3* Members who engage in or are exposed to the hazards 
of wildland fire-fighting operations shall be provided with a 
fire shelter, in a crush-resistive case, and wear it in such a way 
as to allow for rapid deployment. 

7.7.4 Members who engage in or are exposed to the hazards of 
wildland fire fighting shall be provided with and shall use pri- 
mary eye protection that meets the requirements of NFPA 1977. 



7.8 Protective Ensembles for Technical Rescue Operations. 

7.8.1 Members of special teams whose primary function is 
search, rescue, recoveiy, and site stabilization operations for 
technical rescue incidents other than wilderness or water res- 
cue incidents shall be provided with and shall use a protective 
ensemble that is certified as compliant with NFPA 1951, Stan- 
dard on Protective Ensemble for USAR Operations. 

7.8.2 The protective coat and protective trousers shall have at 
least a 2 in. (50 mm) overlap of all layers so there is no gaping 
of the total thermal and barrier protection when the protec- 
tive garments are worn. 

7.8.2.1 The ininimum overlap shall be determined by mea- 
suring the garments on the wearer, without respirator)' protec- 
tion, in both of the following conditions: 

(1) Position A — standing, hands together reaching overhead 
as high as possible 

(2) Position B — standing, hands together reaching over- 
head, with the body bent forward at a 90-degree angle, to 
the side (either left or right) , and to the back 

7.8.2.2 Single-piece protective coveralls shall not be required 
to have an overlap of all layers, provided there is continuous 
composite protection. 

7.8.3 Members engaged in technical rescue operations that 
require respiratory protection shall be provided with and shall 
use respirators that are certified by NIOSH to 42 CFR Part 84. 

7.8.3.1* Where air-purifying respirators (APRs) and powered 
air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) are selected to provide the 
respiratory protection, the APRs and PAPRs shall be provided 
with the chemical or particulate filter elements that provide 
protection against the specific contaminants based upon the 
anticipated level of exposure risk associated with different re- 
sponse situations. 

7.8.3.2* Where it cannot be determined that an APR or PAPR 
will provide effective protection against the contaminant, or if 
the identity of the contaminant is not known, SCBA shall be 
worn until it can be determined that other respiratory protec- 
tion can be used. 

7.8.3.3 Where SCBA are selected to provide the respiratory 
protection, the SC-BA shall meet the applicable requirements 
of 7.1 1.1. 

7.8.4 Members who engage in or are exposed to the hazards 
of search, rescue, recovery, and site stabilization for technical 
rescue shall be provided with and shall use primary eye protec- 
tion that meets the requirements of NFPA 1951. 

7.8.5 Technical rescue protective clothing and protective 
equipment shall be used and maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. 

7.8.5.1 The fire department shall establish a maintenance 
and inspection program for technical rescue protective cloth- 
ing and equipment. 

7.8.5.2 Proper decontamination procedures for all technical 
rescue protective clothing and equipment shall be followed to 
prevent contamination of the user or support personnel. 

7.9 Respiratory Protection Program. 

7.9.1 The fire department shall adopt and maintain a respi- 
ratory protection program that addresses the selection, care, 
maintenance, and use of respiratoty protection equipment 



2007 Edition 



1500-20 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



(RPE), medical surveillance, training in respirator use, and 
the assurance of air quality. 

7.9.1.1* The selection, care, and maintenance of open-circuit 
SCBA shall be as specified in NFPA 1852, Standard on Selection, 
Care, and Maintenance of Open-Circuit Self-Containecl Breathing Ap- 
paratus (SCBA). 

7.9.1.2 Training in respirator use shall include knowledge of 
hazards, hazard assessment, selection of RPE based on hazard 
exposure levels, fit testing of respirators, and respirator in- 
spection. 

7.9.2 The fire department shall develop and maintain standard 
operating procedures that are compliant with this standard and 
that address the use of respiratory protection. 

7.9.3 Members shall be qualified at least annually in the use 
of RPE that they are authorized to use. 

7.9.4* Reserve SCBA shall be provided to maintain the re- 
quired number in service when maintenance or repairs are 
being conducted. 

7.9.5 A reserve air supply shall be provided by use of reserve 
cylinders or by an on-scene refill capability, or both. 

7.9.6 RPE shall be stored in a ready-for-use condition and 
shall be protected from damage or exposure to rough han- 
dling, excessive heat or cold, moisture, or other elements. 

7.9.7* When engaged in any operation where they could en- 
counter atmospheres that are IDLH or potentially IDLH, or 
where the atmosphere is unknown, the fire department shall 
provide and require all members to use SCBA that has been 
certified as being compliant with NFPA 1981, Standard on Open- 
Circuit Setf-Contained Breathing Apparatus for Fire and Emergency 
Services. 

7.9.8* Members using SCBA shall not compromise the protec- 
tive integrity of the SCBA for any reason when operating in 
IDLH, potentially IDLH, or unknown atmospheres by remov- 
ing the facepiece or disconnecting any portion of the SCBA 
that would allow the ambient atmosphere to be breathed. 

7.10 Breathing Air. Breathing air used to fill SCBA cylinders 
shall meet the requirements specified in NFPA 1989, Standard 
on Breathing Air Quality for Fire and Emergericy Services Respiratory 
Protection. 

7.11 Respiratory Protection Equipment. 

7.11.1 SCBA. 

7.11.1.1 All open-circuit SCBA that is purchased new shall be 
certified as compliant with NFPA 1981 and shall also be certi- 
fied by NIOSH as compliant with NIOSFI Standard for Chemical, 
Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Open Circuit Self 
Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). 

7.11.1.2* Open-circuit SCBAthat does not meet the 1992 or later 
editions of NFPA 1981 shall be removed from fire service use. 

7.11.1.3* Closed-circuit SCBA shall be permitted when long- 
durafion SCBA is required. 

7.11.1.4 Closed-circuit SCBA shall be NIOSH certified with a 
minimum rated service life of at least 2 hours and shall oper- 
ate in the positive-pressure mode only. 



7.11.2 Supplied-Air Respirators. 

7.11.2.1 Supplied-air respirator units used shall be of the type 
and manufacture employed by the AHJ. 

7.11.2.2 Supplied-air respirators other than SCBA shall not be 
used in IDLH atmo.spheres unless equipped with a NIOSH- 
certified emergency escape air cylinder and a pressure-demand 
facepiece. 

7.11.2.3 Supplied-air respirators, Type C Pressure-Demand 
Class, shall not be used in IDLH atmo.spheres unless they meet 
manufacturers' specificafions for that purpose. 

7.11.3 FuU Facepiece Air-Purifying Respirators. 

7.11.3.1 Full facepiece air-purifying respirators (APRs) shall 
be used only in non-IDLH atmospheres for those contami- 
nants that NIOSH certifies them against. 

7.11.3.2 The AHJ shall provide NIOSH-cerfified respirators 
that protect the user and ensure compliance with all other 
OSHA requirements. 

7.11.3.3* The AHJ shall establish a policy to ensure canisters 
and cartridges are changed before the end of their service life. 

7.12 Fit Testing. 

7.12.1* The facepiece seal capability of each member quali- 
fied to use RPE shall be verified by quantitative fit testing on 
an annual basis and whenever new types of RPE or facepieces 
are issued. 

7.12.2 The fit of the RPE of each new member shall be tested 
before the members are permitted to use RPE in a hazardous 
atmosphere. 

7.12.2.1 Only members with a properly fitting facepiece shall 
be permitted by the fire department to fimction in a hazard- 
ous atmosphere with RPE. 

7.12.3 Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respi- 
rators and tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators shall 
be accomplished by performing quantitative fit testing in the 
negative-pressure mode, regardless of the mode of operation 
(negative or positive pressure) that is used for respiratoi7 pro- 
tection. 

7.12.4* Quantitative test protocols shall be conducted as re- 
quired by the AHJ. 

7.12.5 Records of facepiece fitting tests shall include at least 
the following information: 

(1) Name of the member tested 

(2) Type of fitting test performed 

(.3) Specific make and model of facepieces tested 
(4) Pass/fail results of the tests 

7.12.6* For departments that perform quantitative fitting 
tests, the protection factor produced shall be at least 500 for 
negative-pressure facepieces for the person to pass the fitting 
test with that make of full facepiece. 

7.13 Using Respiratory Protection. 

7.13.1 Respirators shall not be worn when a member has any 
conditions that prevent a good face .seal 

7.13.2 Nothing shall be allowed to enter or pass through the 
area where the respiratory protection facepiece is designed to 
seal with the face, regardless of the specific fitting test mea- 
surement that can be obtained. 



\Msi 2007 Edition 



PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 



1500-21 



7.13.3* Members who have a beard or facial hair at any point 
where the facepiece is designed to seal with the face or whose 
hair could interfere with the operation of the unit shall not be 
permitted to use respiratoiy protection at emergency inci- 
dents or in hazardous or potentially hazardous atmospheres. 

7.13.3.1 These restrictions shall apply regardless of die spe- 
cific fitdng test measurement that can be obtained under test 
conditions. 

7.13.4 When a member must wear spectacles while using full 
facepiece respiratory protection, the facepiece shall be fitted 
with spectacles in such a manner that they shall not interfere 
with the facepiece-to-face seal. 

7.13.5 Spectacles with any strap or temple bars that pass 
through the facepiece-to-face seal area shall be prohibited. 

7.13.6* Use of contact lenses shall be permitted during full face- 
piece respiratory protection use, pro\ided that the member has 
previously demonstrated successful long-term contact lens use. 

7.13.7 Any head covering that passes between the sealing sur- 
face of the respiratory protection facepiece and the member's 
face shall be prohibited. 

7.13.8 The respiratory protection facepiece and head har- 
ness with straps shall be worn under the protective hoods. 

7.13.9 The respiratory protection facepiece and head har- 
ness with straps shall be worn under the head protection of 
any hazardous chemical-protective clothing. 

7.13.10 Helmets shall not interfere with the respiratory pro- 
tection facepiece-to-face seal. 

7.14 SCBA Cylinders. 

7.14.1* SCBAcyhnders made of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 shall 
be inspected annually, both externally and internally, by a 
qualified person. 

7.14.2 SCBA cylinders shall be hydrostatically tested as re- 
quired by the manufacturers and applicable governmental 
agencies. 

7.14.3 In-service SCBA cylinders shall be stored fully charged. 

7.14.4 In-service SCBA cylinders shall be inspected weekly, 
monthly, and prior to filling, according to NIOSH requirements, 
CGA standards, and manufacturers' recommendations. 

7.14.5* During filling of SCBA cylinders, all personnel and 
operators shall be protected from catastrophic failure of the 
cylinder. 

7.14.6* Fire departments utilizing rapid filhng of SCBAcyhn- 
ders shall identify those unique emergency sittiations where 
rapid filling shah be permitted to occur. 

7.14.7 The fire department risk assessment process shall in- 
corporate standard operating procedures to identify those 
situations in 7.14.6. 

7.14.8 Rapid refilling of SCBA while being worn by the user 
shall only be used uncler the following conditions: 

(1) NlOSH-approved fill options are used. 

(2) The risk a.s,sessment process has identified procedures for 
limiting personnel exposure during the refill process and 
has provided for adequate equipment inspection and 
member safety. 

(3) An imminent life-threatening situation occurs that requires 
immediate action to prevent the loss of life or serious injury. 



7.14.9 In an emergency situation where an individual be- 
comes disoriented, runs low on air, is trapped or injured and 
cannot be moved to a safe atmosphere, and danger of serious 
injuiy or death is likely, rapid fill, air transfer, or a supplied-air 
sc5urce shall be an approved method to provide a source of 
breathing air. 

7.14.10 If a .supplied source is not immediately avaihible, 
transfilling of cylinders shall be done in accordance with the 
manufacturers' instructions. 

7.15 Personal Alert Safety System (PASS). 

7.15.1* PASS devices shall meet the requirements of NFPA 1982, 
Standard on Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS). 

7.15.2* Each member shall be provided with, use, and acti- 
vate his or her PASS devices in all emergency situations that 
could jeopardize that person's safety due to atmospheres that 
could be IDLH, in incidents that could result in entrapment, 
in structural collapse of any type, or as directed by the incident 
commander or incident safety officer. 

7.15.3 Each PASS device shall be tested at least weekly and 
prior to each use and shall be maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturers' instructions. 



The text of Section 7. 1 5 and its Annex A paragraphs has 
been revised by a tentative interim amendment (TIA). 
See page 1. 



7.16 Life Safety Rope and System Components. 

7.16.1 All life safety ropes, harnesses, and hardware used by 
fire departments shall meet the applicable requirements of 
NFPA 1983, Standard an Life Safely Rope and Equipment fur Emer- 
geniy Services. 

7.16.2 Rope used to support the weight of members or other 
persons during rescue, fire fighting, other emergency opera- 
tions, or training evolutions shall be life safety rope and shall 
meet the requirements of NFPA 1983. 

7.16.2.1 Life safety rope used for any other purpose shall be 
removed from service and destroyed. 

7.16.3* Life safety rope used for rescue at fires or other emer- 
gency incidents or for training shall be permitted to be reused 
if inspected before and after each such use in accordance with 
the manufacturers' instructions and provided that the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(1) The rope has not been visually damaged by exposure to 
heat, direct flame impingement, chemical exposure, or 
abrasion. 

(2) The rope has not been subjected to any impact load. 

(3) The rope has not been exposed to chemical liquids, sol- 
ids, gases, mists, or vapors of any material known to dete- 
riorate rope. 

7.16.3.1 If the rope used for rescue at fires or other emer- 
gency incidents or for training does not meet the criteria set 
forth in 7.16.3(1), 7.16.3(2), or 7.16.3(3) or fails the visual 
inspection, it shall be destroyed. 

7.16.3.2 If there is any question regarding the serviceability 
of the rope after consideration of the criteria listed in 7.1 6.3, 
the rope shall be taken out of ser\'ice. 



2007 Edition 



1500-22 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGR/VM 



7.16.4 Rope inspection shall be conducted by qualified in- 
spectors in accordance with rope inspection procedures estab- 
lished and recommended by the rope manufacturer to assure 
rope is appropriate for reuse. 

7.16.5 Records shall be maintained to document the use of 
each life safety rope used at fires and other emergency inci- 
dents or for training. 

7.17 Face and Eye Protection. 

7.17.1 Primary eye protection appropriate for a given specific 
hazard shall be provided for and used by members exposed to 
that specific hazard. 

7.17.1.1* Primary eye protection shall meet the requirements 
of ANSI Z87.1, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and 
Face Protection. 

7.17.1.2 Face protection shall be in addition to primary eye 
protection unless SCBA is being used. 

7.17.1.3 The helmet faceshield alone shall not be considered 
and shall not be used as primary eye protection. 

7.17.2 The full facepiece of SCBA shall constitute face and 
eye protection when worn. 

7.17.2.1 SCBA that has a facepiece-mounted regulator that 
when disconnected provides a direct path for flying objects to 
strike the face or eyes shall have the regulator attached in 
order to be considered face and eye protection. 

7.17.3 When operating in the hazardous area at an emer- 
gency scene without the full facepiece of respiratory protec- 
tion being worn, members shall wear primary eye protection 
that is designed to protect the member's eyes from the ex- 
pected hazards. 

7.18 Hearing Protection. 

7.18.1* Hearing protection shall be provided for and used by 
all members operating or riding on fire apparatus when sub- 
ject to noise in excess of 90 dBA. 

7.18.2* Hearing protection shall be provided for and used by 
all members when exposed to noise in excess of 90 dBA caused 
by power tools or equipment, other than in situations where 
the use of such protective equipment would create an addi- 
tional hazard to the user. 

7.18.3* The fire department shall engage in a hearing conser- 
vation program to idenufy and reduce or eliminate potentially 
harmful sources of noise in the work environment. 

7.19 New and Existing Protective Clothing and Protective 
Equipment. 

7.19.1 All new protective clothing and protective equipment 
shall meet the requirements of the current edition of the re- 
spective NFPA standard for that protective clothing or protec- 
tive equipment. 

7.19.2 Existing protective clothing and protective equipment 
shall have been in compliance with the edition of the respec- 
tive NFPA standard that was cuirent when the protective cloth- 
ing or protective equipment was manufactured. 

7.19.3 Members' PPE shall be taken out of service after 15 years 
from date of manufacture, regardless of testing or inspection 
procedures. 



Chapter 8 Emergency Operations 

8.1 Incident Management. 

8.1.1* Emergency operations and other situations that pose 
similar hazards, including but not limited to training exer- 
cises, shall be conducted in a manner that recognizes hazards 
and prevents accidents and injuries. 

8.1.2 An incident management system that meets the re- 
quirements of NFPA 1561, Standard on Emergency Sewices Inci- 
dent Management System, shall be established with written stan- 
dard operating procedures applying to all members involved 
in emergency operations. 

8.1.3 The incident management system shall be utilized at all 
emergency incidents. 

8.1.4 The incident management system shall be applied to 
drills, exercises, and other situations that involve hazards simi- 
lar to those encountered at actual emergency incidents and to 
simulated incidents that are conducted for training and famil- 
iarization purposes. 

8.1.5* At an emergency incident, the incident commander 
shall be respon.sible for the overall management of the inci- 
dent and the safety of all members involved at the scene. 

8.1.6 As incidents escalate in size and complexity, the inci- 
dent commander shall divide the incident into tactical-level 
management components and assign an incident safety officer 
to assess the incident scene for hazards or potential hazards. 

8.1.7* At an emergency incident, the incident commander 
shall establish an organization with sufficient supei-visory per- 
sonnel to control the position and function of all members 
operating at the scene and to ensure that safety requirements 
are satisfied. 

8.1.8* At an emergency incident, the incident commander 
shall have the responsibility for the following: 



(1) 
(2) 

(3) 
(4) 
(5) 



(6) 

(7) 



(8) 

(9) 
(10) 



(11) 



Arrive on-scene before assuming command 
Assume and confirm command of an incident and take 
an effective command position 

Perform situation evaluation that includes risk assessment 
Initiate, maintain, and control incident communications 
Develop an overall strategy and an incident action plan 
and assign companies and members consistent with the 
standard operating procedures 
Initiate an accountability and inventory worksheet 
Develop an effective incident organization by managing 
resources, maintaining an effective span of control, and 
maintaining direct supervision over the entire incident, 
and designate supervisors in charge of specific areas or 
functions 

Review, evaluate, and revise the incident action plan as 
required 

Continue, transfer, and terminate command 
On incidents under the command authority of the fire 
department, provide for liaison and coordination with 
all other cooperating agencies 

On incidents where other agencies have jurisdiction, 
implement a plan that designates one incident com- 
mander or that provides for unified command 



8.1.8.1 Interagency coordination shall meet the require- 
ments of NFPA 1561. 



2007 Edition 



EMERGENCY OPERATIONS 



1500-23 



8.2 Communications. 

8.2.1 The fire department shall establish and ensure the 
maintenance of a fire dispatch and incident communications 
system that meets the requirements of NFPA 1561 and 

NFPA1221, Standard for the Installation, Maintenance, and Use of 
Emergency Services Communications Systems. 

8.2.2* The fire department standard operating procedures 
shall provide direction in the use of clear text radio messages 
for emergency incidents. 

8.2.2.1 The standard operating procedures shall use "emer- 
gency traffic" as a designator to clear the radio traffic. 

8.2.2.2 This "emergency traffic" shall be permitted to be de- 
clared by the incident commander, tactical level management 
component supervisor, or member in trouble or subjected to 
emergency conditions. 

8.2.3* When a member has declared "emergency traffic," that 
person shall use clear text to identify the type of emergency, 
change in conditions, or tactical operations. 

8.2.3.1 The member who has declared the "emergency traf- 
fic" shall conclude the "emergency tralFic" message by trans- 
mitting "all clear, resume radio traffic" to end the emergency 
situation or to re-open the radio channels to communication 
after announcing the emergency message. 

8.2.4* The fire department communications center shall start an 
incident clock when the first arriving unit is on-scene of a work- 
ing structure fire or hazardous materials incident, or when other 
conditions appear to be time sensitive or dangerous. 

8.2.4.1* The dispatch center shall notify the incident com- 
mander at every 10-minute increment with the time that re- 
sources have been on the incident until the fire is knocked 
down or the incident becomes static. 

8.2.4.2 The incident commander shall be permitted to cancel 
the incident clock notification through the fire department com- 
munications center based on the incident conditions. 

8.3 Risk Management During Emei^ency Operations. 

8.3.1* The incident commander shall integrate risk manage- 
ment into the regular functions of incident command. 

8.3.2* The concept of risk management shall be utilized on 
the basis of the following principles: 

(1) Activities that present a significant risk to the safety of 
members shall be limited to situations where there is a 
potential tr^ save endangered lives. 

(2) Activities that are routinely employed to protect property 
shall be recognized as inherent risks to the safety of mem- 
bers, and actions shall be taken to reduce or avoid these 
risks. 

(3) No risk to the .safety of members shall be acceptable when 
there is no possibility to save lives or property. 

(4) In situations where the risk to fire department members is 
excessive, activities shall be limited to defensive operations. 

8.3.3* The incident commander shall evaluate the risk to 
members with respect to the purpose and potential results of 
their actions in each situation. 

8.3.4 Risk management principles shall be routinely employed 
by supervisory personnel at all levels of the incident management 
system to define the limits of acceptable and vmacceptable posi- 
tions and functions for all members at the incident scene. 

i 



8.3.5* At significant incidents and .special operations inci- 
dents, the incident commander shall assign an incident safety 
officer who has the expertise to evaluate hazards and provide 
direction with respect to the overall safety of personnel. 

8.3.6 At terrorist incidents or other incidents involving po- 
tential CBRN exposure, the incident commander shall assess 
the risk to members and ensure that protective equipment 
appropriate for the risk is available for and used by members. 

8.3.7* Because of the possibility of members being expo.sed to 
nerve agents during terrorist activities, fire departments shall 
consider providing atropine auto-injectors for members. 

8.4 Personnel Accoimtability Dming Emergency Operations. 

8.4.1* The fire department shall establish written standard 
operating procedures for a personnel accountability system 
that is in accordance with NFPA 1561. 

8.4.2 The fire department shall consider local conditions and 
characteristics in establi.shing the requirements of the person- 
nel accountability system. 

8.4.3 It shall be the responsibility of all members operating at 
an emergency incident to actively participate in the personnel 
accountability system. 

8.4.4 The incident commander shall maintain an awareness 
of the location and function of all companies or crews at the 
scene of the incident. 

8.4.5 Officers assigned the responsibility for a specific tactical 
level management component at an incident shall directly su- 
pervise and account for the companies and/or crews operat- 
ing in their specific area of responsibility. 

8.4.6 Company officers shall maintain an ongoing awareness 
of the location and condition of all company members. 

8.4.7 Where assigned as a company, members shall be re- 
spon.sible to remain under the supervision of their assigned 
company officer. 

8.4.8 Members shall be responsible for following personnel 
accountability system procedures. 

8.4.9 The personnel accountability system shall be used at all 
incidents. 

8.4.10* The fire department shall develop, implement, and 
utilize the system components required to make the person- 
nel accountability system effective. 

8.4.11* The standard operating procedures shall provide the 
use of additional accountabihty oflicers based on the size, 
complexity, or needs of the incident. 

8.4.12 The incident commander and members who are as- 
signed a supervisory responsibility for a tactical level manage- 
ment component that involves multiple companies or crews 
under their command shall have assigned a member(s) to fa- 
cilitate the ongoing tracking and accountability of assigned 
companies and crews. 

8.5 Members Operating at Emergency Incidents. 

8.5.1 The fire department shall provide an adequate number 
of personnel to safely conduct emergency scene operations. 

8.5.1.1* Operations shall be limited to those that can be safely 
performed by the personnel available at the scene. 



2007 Edition 



1500-24 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFE lY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



8.5.2 No member or members shall commence or perform 
any fire-fighting function or evolution that is not within the 
established safety criteria of the organizational statement as 
specified in 4.1.1. 

8.5.3 When inexperienced members are working at an inci- 
dent, direct supervision shall be provided by more experi- 
enced officers or members. 

8.5.3.1 The requirement of 8.5.3 shall not reduce the train- 
ing requirements contained in 5.1.3 and 5.1.4. 

8.5.4* Members operating in hazardous areas at emergency 
incidents shall operate in crews of two or more. 

8.5.5 Crew members operating in hazardous areas shall be in 
communication with each other through visual, t^udible, or 
physical means or safety guide rope, in order to coordinate 
their activities. 

8.5.6 Crew members shall be in proximity to each other to 
provide assistance in case of emergency. 

8.5.7* In the initial stages of an incident where only one crew 
is operating in the hazardous area at a working structural fire, 
a minimum of four individuals shall be required, consisdng of 
two individuals working as a crew in the hazardous area and 
two individuals present outside this hazardous area available 
for assistance or rescue at emergency operations where entry 
into the danger area is required. 

8.5.8 The standby members shall be responsible for main- 
taining a constant awareness of the number and identity of 
members operating in the hazardous area, their location and 
function, and time of entry, 

8.5.9 The standby members shall remain in radio, visual, 
voice, or signal line communication with the crew. 

8.5.10 The "initial stages" of an incident shall encompass the 
tasks undertaken by the first arriving company with only one 
crew assigned or operating in the hazardous area. 

8.5.11* One standby member shall be permitted to perform 
other duties outside of the hazardous area, such as apparatus 
operator, incident commander, or technician or aide, pro- 
vided constant communication is maintained between the 
standby member and the members of the crew. 

8.5.12 The assignment of any personnel, including the inci- 
dent commander, the safety officer, or operators of fire appa- 
ratus, shall not be permitted as standby personnel if by aban- 
doning their critical task(s) to assist or, if necessary, perform 
rescue, they clearly jeopardize the safety and health of any fire 
fighter working at the incident. 

8.5.12.1 No one shall be permitted to serve as a standby mem- 
ber of the fire-fighting crew when the other activities in which 
the fire fighter is engaged inhibit the fire fighter's ability to 
a.ssist in or perform rescue, if necessary, or are of such impor- 
tance that they cantiot be abandoned without placing other 
fire fighters in danger. 

8.5.13 The standby member shall be provided with full pro- 
tective clothing, protective equipment, and SCBA appropriate 
for the risk that might be encountered. 

8.5.13.1 The full protective clothing, protective equipment, 
and SCBA shall be immediately accessible for use by the out- 
side crew if the need for rescue activities inside the hazardous 
area occurs. 



8.5.14 The standby members shall don full protective cloth- 
ing, protective equipment, and SCBA prior to entering the 
hazardous area. 

8.5.15 When only a single crew is operating in the hazardous 
area in the initial stages of the incident, this standby member 
shall be permitted to assist with, or if necessary perfbnn, rescue 
for members of his/her crew, provided that abandoning his/her 
task does not jeopardize the safety or health of the crew. 

8.5.16 Once a second crew is assigned or operating in the haz- 
ardous area, the incident shall no longer be considered in the 
"initial stage," and at least one rapid intervention crew shall be 
deployed that complies with the requirements of 8.8.2. 

8.5.17 Initial attack operations shall be organized to ensure 
that if, on arrival at the emergency scene, initial attack person- 
nel find an imminent life-threatening situation where imme- 
diate action could prevent the loss of life or serious injury, 
such action shall be permitted with less than four personnel 
when conducted in accordance with 8.5.7. 

8.5.17.1 No exception as permitted in 8.5.17 shall be allowed 
when there is no possibility to save lives. 

8.5.17.2 Any such actions taken in accordance with 8.5.17 
shall be thoroughly investigated by the fire department with a 
written report submitted to the fire chief 

8.5.18* At aircraft rescue fire-fighting incidents, the initial 
IDLH shall be identified as the area within 75 ft (23 m) of the 
skin of the aircraft. 

8.5.18.1 After size-up, the incident commander shall adjust 
the IDLH designation as the situation dictates, to meet opera- 
tional needs. 

8.5.18.2 Aircraft rescue fire-fighting operations inside the 
area identified as the IDLH shall be in accordance with 8.5.4. 

8.5.19* When members are performing special operations, 
the highest available level of emergency medical care shall be 
standing by at the .scene with medical equipment and trans- 
portation capabilities. Basic life support (BLS) shall be the 
minimum level of emergency medical care. 

8.5.20 Emergency medical care and medical monitoring at 
hazardous materials incidents shall be provided by or super- 
vised by personnel who meet the minimum requirements of 
NFPA 47.3, Standard Jot Competencies for EMS Personnel Respond- 
ing to Hazardous Materials Incidents. 

8.5.21 At all other emergency operations, the incident com- 
mander shall evaluate the ri.sk to the members operating at 
the scene and, if necessary, request that at least BLS personnel 
and patient transportation be available. 

8.5.22 When members are operating from aerial devices, 
they shall be secured to the aerial device with a system in com- 
pliance with NFPA 1983, Standard on Life Safety Rope and Equip- 
ment for Emergency Seruices. 

8.5.23 The incident commander shall en.sure fire investiga- 
tors or other members that enter an IDLH atmosphere or 
hazardous area use the PPE, SCBA, or both, as appropriate for 
risks that might be encountered. 

8.5.24* Members involved in water rescue shall be issued and 
wear personal flotation devices that meet U.S. Coast Guard 
requirements. 



[i] 



2007 Edition 



EMERGENCY OPERATIONS 



1500-25 



8.6 Control Zones. 

8.6. 1 Control zones shall be established at emergency incidents. 

8.6.1.1 The perimeters of the control zones shall be designated 
by the incident commander and communicated to all members. 

8.6.1.2 If the perimeters of the control zones change during 
the course of the incident, these changes shall be communi- 
cated to all members on the scene. 

8.6.2* Hazard control zones shall be designated as hot, warm, 
and cold. 

8.6.2.1 All members shall wear all of the PPE (SCBA, flash 
hood, etc.) appropriate for the risks that might be encoun- 
tered while in the hot zone. 

8.6.2.2* All members operating within the hot zone shall have 
an assigned task. 

8.6.2.3 Where an exclusion zone is designated, no personnel 
shall enter the exclusion zone due to imminent hazard(s) or 
the need to protect evidence. 

8.7* Traffic Incidents. 

8.7.1 When members are operating at an emergency inci- 
dent and their assignment places them in potential conflict 
with motor vehicle traffic, all efforts shall be made to protect 
the members. 

8.7.2 Each department shall establish, implement, and en- 
force standard operating procedures regarding emergency 
operations for traffic incidents. 

8.7.3 Apparatus and warning devices shall be placed to take 
advantage of topography and weather conditions (uphill/ 
upwind) and to protect lire fighters from traffic. 

8.7.4 Fire apparatus shall be positioned in a blocking posi- 
tion, so if it is struck it will protect members and other persons 
at the incident scene. 

8.7.4.1 Wlien acting as a .shield, apparatus warning lights 
shall remain on, if appropriate. 

8.7.4.2 All additional responding vehicles, when arriving on 
the scene, shall position beyond the traffic barrier unle.ss their 
function requires placement before the barrier. 

8.7.5* One or more of the following warning devices shall be 
used to warn oncoming traffic of the emergency operations 
and the hazards to members operating at the incident: 

(1) Fluorescent and retro-reflective warning devices such as 
traffic cones 

(2) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)-approved48in. 
by 48 in. retro-reflective signs stating "Emergency Scene 
Ahead" (with directional arrow overlay) 

(3) Illuminated warning devices such as highway flares 

(4) Other warning devices appropriate to warn oncoming 
traiflc of the emergency operations 

8.7.6 Warning devices shall be placed and utilized with 
proper considerations given to visual obstruction such as hills, 
cun'es, blind spots, or unusual localized weather conditions 
such as fog or rain. 

8.7.7 The first arriving unit shall ensure that traffic is con- 
trolled before addressing the emergency operations. 

8.7.8 Members shall position themselves and any victims in a 
secure area. 



8.7.9 Members shall park or stage unneeded fire apparatus 
and personal vehicles off the roadway whenever possible. 

8.7.10* When members are operating at a traffic incident and 
their assignment places them in potential conflict with motor 
vehicle traffic, they shall wear a garment with fluorescent and 
retro-reflective material visible from all directions. 

8.7.11* Members used for traffic control purposes shall receive 
training that is commensurate with their duties and in accor- 
dance with any applicable state and local laws and regulations. 

8.8 Rapid Intervention for Rescue of Members. 

8.8.1 The fire department shall provide personnel for the 
rescue of members operating at emergency incidents. 

8.8.2 A rapid intervention crew/company (RIC) shall consist 
of at least two members and shall be available for rescue of a 
member or a crew. 

8.8.2.1 Each RIC shall be fully equipped with protective 
clothing, protective equipment, SCBA, and any specialized 
rescue equipment that could be needed given the specifics of 
the operation under way. 

8.8.2.2 The RICs at an incident where any SCBA being used are 
equipped with a RIC universal air connection (UAC) shall have 
the .speciaUzed rescue equipment including a fully charged 
breathing air cylinder with a NIOSH<ertified rated service time 
of at least 30 minutes and compatible pressure and capacity with 
the SCBA being used at the incident, or a high-pressure air line of 
sufficient length to reach the location of the entrapped or 
downed fire fighter(s) and supplied by a pressurized breathing 
air source that can provide at least 3.5 ft' (100 L) of air per 
minute at the RIC UAC female fitting and at a pressure compat- 
ible with the SCBA being used at the incident. 

8.8.2.3 Both the breathing air cylinder and the high-pressure 
air line described in 8.8.2.2 shall be equipped with a RIC UAC 
filling hose assembly equipped with a RIC UAC female fitting. 

8.8.2.4 The RIC UAC filling hose assembly shall meet the 
requirements specified in 6.4.7 of NFPA 1981, Standard on 
Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus for Fire and Emer- 
gency Services. 

8.8.2.5 The RIC UAC female fitting shall meet the require- 
ments specified in 6.4.6 of NFPA 1981. 

8.8.2.6 The RIC UAC female fitting shall mate with the RIC 
UAC male fitting to form a RIC UAC coupling that meets the 
requirements specified in 6.4.8 of NFPA 1981. 

8.8.3 The composition and structure of a RIC shall be permit- 
ted to be flexible based on the type of incident and the size 
and complexity of operations. 

8.8.4* The incident commander shall evaluate the situation 
and the risks to operating crews and shall provide one or more 
RICs commensurate with the needs of the situation. 

8.8.5 In the early stages of an incident, which includes the 
deployment of a fire department's initial attack assignment, 
the RIC shall be in compliance with 8.5.1 1 and 8.5.12 and be 
eitlier one of the following: 

(1) On-scene members designated and dedicated as a RIC 

(2) On-scene members performing other functions but ready 
to re-deploy to perform RIC functions 

8.8.5.1 The assignment of any personnel shall not be permit- 
ted as members of the RIC if abandoning their critical task(s) 



2007 Edition 



1500-26 



FIliE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGR.\M 



to perf'oim rescue clearly jeopardizes the safety and health of 
any member operating at the incident. 

8.8.6 As the incident expands in size or complexity, which 
includes an incident commander's requests for additional 
resources beyond a fire department's initial attack assign- 
ment, the dedicated RIG shall on arrival of these additional 
resources be either one of the following: 

(1) On-scene members designated and dedicated as RIG 

(2) On-scene crew/company or crews/companies located for 
rapid deployment and dedicated as RIGs 

8.8.6.1 During fire fighter rescue operations each crew/ 
company shall remain intact. 

8.8.7 At least one dedicated RIG shall be standing by with 
equipment to provide for the rescue of members that are per- 
forming special operadons or for members that are in posi- 
dons that present an immediate danger of injtxry in the event 
of equipment failure or collapse. 

8.9 RehabUitation During Emergency Operations. 

8.9.1* The fire department shall develop standard operating 
procedures that oudine a systematic approach for the rehabili- 
tation of members operating at incidents. 

8.9.2* The incident commander shall consider the circum- 
stances of each incident and initiate rehabilitation in accor- 
dance with the standard operating procedures and with 
NFPA1561. 

8.9.3* Such on-scene rehabilitiition shall include at least rest, 
hydration, active cooling where required, basic life support care, 
food where required, and protection from extreme elements. 

8.9.4 Each member operating at an incident shall be respon- 
sible to communicate rehabilitation needs to their supeivisor. 

8.9.5* Each member who engages in wildland fire-fighting 
operations shall be provided with 2 qt (2 L) of water. 

8.9.5.1 Aprocess shall be established for the rapid replenish- 
ment of water supplies. 

8.10 Scenes of Violence, Civil Unrest, or Terrorism. 

8.10.1* Fire department members shall not become involved 
in any activities at the scene of domestic disturbance, civil un- 
rest, or similar situations where there is ongoing violence, 
without the confirmed presence of law enforcement person- 
nel who have deemed the scene secure. 

8.10.2 Under no circumstances shall fire department equip- 
ment or personnel be used for crowd control or dispersement 
purposes. 

8.10.3* The fire department shall develop and maintain 
written standard operating procedures that establish a stan- 
dardized approach to the safety of members at incidents 
that involve violence, unrest, or civil disturbance. 

8.10.4 The fire department shall be responsible for develop- 
ing an interagency agreement with its law enforcement agency 
counterpart to provide protection for fire department mem- 
bers at situations that involve violence. 

8.10.5* The fire department shall develop a standard commu- 
nication method that indicates that an incident crew is faced 
with a life-and-death situation requiring immediate law en- 
forcement intei^ention. 



8.10.6 Such violent situations shall be considered essentially a 
law enforcement event, and the fire department shall coordinate 
with the law enforcement incident commander throughout the 
incident. 

8.10.7 The fire department incident commander shall identify 
and react to situations that do involve or are likely to involve 
violence. 

8.10.8 fit .such violent situations, the fire department inci- 
dent commander shall communicate directly with the law en- 
forcement incident commander to ensure the .safety of fire 
department members. 

8.10.9 In such violent situations, the fire department incident 
commander- shall stage all fire department resources in a safe 
area until the law enforcement agency has secured the scene. 

8.10.10 When violence occurs after emergency operations 
have been initiated, the fire department incident commander 
shall either secure immediate law enforcement agency protec- 
tion or shall withdraw all fire department members to a safe 
staging area. 

8.10.11 At civil disturbances or similar incidents where pro- 
tective equipment generally considered as law enforcement- 
related, such as body armor, shall be utilized only by members 
who are trained and qualified to use such equipment. 

8.10.12 Fire department companies or crews that provide 
support to law enforcement agency special weapons and tac- 
tics (SWAT) operations shall receive special training. 

8.10.12.1 Special standard operating procedures shall be 
developed that describe the training and safety of these fire 
department crews for such operations. 

8.10.12.2 These activities shall be considered as special op- 
erations for the purpose of this standard. 

8.11 Post-Incident Analysis. 

8.11.1 The fire department shall establish requirements and 
standard operating procedures for a standardized post-incident 
analysis of significant incidents or those that involve serious in- 
jury or death to a fire lighter. 

8.11.2 The fire department incident safety officer shall be 
involved in the post-incident analysis as defined in NFR\ 1521, 
Standard for Fire Department Safety Officer. 

8.11.3 The analysis shall conduct a basic review of the condi- 
tions present, the actions taken, and the effect of the condi- 
tions and actions on the safety and health of members. 

8.11.4 The analysis shall identify any action necessary to 
change or update any safety and health program elements to 
improve the welfare of members. 

8.11.5 The analysis process shall include a standardized ac- 
tion plan for such necessary changes. 

8.11.5.1 The action plan shall include the change needed 
and the responsibilities, dates, and details of such actions. 



Chapter 9 Facility Safety 

9.1 Safety Standards. 

9.1.1* All fire department facilities shall comply with all legally 
applicable health, safety, building, and fire code requiremeriLs. 



E9 

NFIW 



2007 Edition 



MEDICAL AND PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS 



1500-27 



9.1.2 Fire departments shall provide facilities for disinfect- 
ing, cleaning, and storage in accordance with NFPA 1581, 
Standard on Fire Departrmnt Infeciion Control. Program. 

9.1.3 All existing and new fire stations shall be provided with 
smoke detectors in work, sleeping, and general storage areas. 

9.1.3.1 When activated, these detectors shall sound an alarm 
throughout the fire station. 

9.1.4* All existing and new fire department facilities shall have 
carbon monoxide detectors installed in locittions in sleeping 
and living areas, such that any source of carbon monoxide 
would be detected before endangering the members. 

9.1.5* All fire stations and fire department facilities shall com- 
ply with NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

9.1.6* The fire departnrent shall prevent exposure to fire 
fighters and contamination of living and sleeping areas to ex- 
haust emissions. 

9. 1 .7 Any components of the protective ensemble that are con- 
taminated shall not be allowed in sleeping and living areas. 

9.1.8 All fire department facilifies shall be designated smoke 
free. 

9.1.9* Stations utihzing poles to provide rapid access to lower 
floors shall ensure that the area around the pole hole is .se- 
cured by means of a cover, enclosure, or other means to pre- 
vent someone from accidentally falling through the pole hole. 

9.2 Inspections. 

9.2.1 All fire department facilities shall be in.spected at 
least annually to provide for compliance with Section 9.1. 

(See Annex G.) 

9.2.2 Inspections shall be documented and recorded. 

9.2.3 All fire department facilities shall be inspected at least 
monthly to identify and provide correction of any safety or 
health hazards. 

9.3* Maintenance and Repairs. The fire department shall 
have an established system to maintain all facilities and to 
provide prompt correction of any safety or health hazard or 
code violation. 



Chapter 10 Medical and Physical Requirements 

10.1 Medical Requirements. 

10.1.1 Candidates shall be medically evaluated and qualified 
for duty by the fire department physician. 

10.1.2 ^4edical evaluafions shall take into account the risks 
and the fimctions associated with the individual's duties and 
responsibilities. 

10.1.3 Candidates and members who will engage in fire sup- 
pression shall meet the medical requirements specified in 

NFPA 1582, Standard on Comprehensix)e Occupational Medical Pro- 
gram for Fire Departments. 

10.1.4 Fire departments that operate their own fixed wing or 
rotary aircraft shall require fire department pilots who perform 
fire-fighting operations from the air to maintain a commercial 
Class 1 medical examination in conformance with Federal Avia- 
tion Agency (FAA) regulations for commercial pilots. 



10.1.5* Members who are under the influence of alcohol or 
drugs shall not participate in any Fire department operations 
or other duties. 

10.2 Physical Performance Requirements. 

10.2.1* The fire department shall develop physical perfor- 
mance requirements for candidates and members who engage 
in emergency operations. 

10.2.2 Candidates shall be qualified as meeting the physical 
performance requirements established by the fire department 
prior to entering into a training program to become a fire 
fighter. 

10.2.3 Members who engage in emergency operations shall 
be annually qualified as meering the physical performance re- 
quirements established by the fire department. 

10.2.4 Members who do not meet the required level of 
physical performance shall not be permitted to engage in 
emergency operations. 

10.2.5 Members who are unable to meet the physical perfor- 
mance requirements shall enter a physical performance reha- 
bilitation program to facilitate progress in attaining a level of 
performance commensurate with the individuafs assigned du- 
ties and responsibilities. 

10.3 Health and Fitness. 

10.3.1 The fire department shall establish and provide a health 
and fitness program that meets the requirements of NFPA 1583, 
Standard on Hecdlh-Rekited Fitness Programs for Fire Fighters, to enable 
members to develop and maintain a level of fitness that allows 
them to safely perform their assigned functions. 

10.3.2 The maintenance of fitness levels specified in the 
program shall be ba.sed on fitness standards determined by 
the fire department physician that reflect the individual's 
assigned fimctions and activities and that are intended to 
reduce the probability and severity of occupational injuries 
and illnesses. 

10.3.3 The fire department health and fitness coorclinator 
shall administer all aspects of the physical fitness and health 
enhancement program. 

10.3.4 The health and fitness coordinator shall act as a direct 
liaison between the fire department physician and the fire de- 
partment in accordance with NFPA 1582. 

10.4 Confidential Health Data Base. 

10.4.1* The fire department shall ensure that a confidential, 
permanent health file is established and maintained on each 
individual member. 

10.4.2 The individual health file shall record the results of 
regular medical evaluations and physical performance tests, 
any occupational illnesses or injuries, and any events that ex- 
pose the individual to known or suspected hazardous materi- 
als, toxic products, or contagious diseases. 

10.4.3* Flealth information shall be maintained as a confiden- 
ual record for each individual member as well as a composite 
data base for the analysis of factors pertaining to the overall 
health and fitness of the member group. 

10.4.4* If a member dies as a re.sult of occupaUonal injury or 
illness, autop.sy results, if available, shall be recorded in the 
health data base. 



2007 Edition 



1500-28 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY /\ND HEALTH PROGRAM 



10.5 Infection Control. 

10.5.1* The fire department shall actively attempt to identify 
and limit or prevent the exposure of members to infectious 
and contagious diseases in the performance of their assigned 
duties. 

10.5.2 The fire department shall operate an infection control 
program that meets the requirements of NFPA 1581. 

10.6 Fire Department Physician. 

10.6.1 The fire department shall have an officially designated 
physician who shall be responsible for guiding, directing, and 
advising the members with regard to their health and fitness 
for various duties. 

10.6.2 The fire department physician shall provide medical 
guidance in the management of the occupational safety and 
health program. 

10.6.3* The fire department physician shall be a licensed 
medical doctor or osteopathic physician qualified to provide 
professional expertise in the areas of occupational safety and 
health as they relate to emergency services. 

10.6.4* The fire department physician shall be readily avail- 
able for consultafion and to provide professional services on 
an urgent basis. 

10.6.4.1 Availability shall be permitted to be accomplished by 
providing access to a number of qualified physicians. 

10.6.5 The fire department shall require that the health and 
safety officer and the health fitness coordinator maintain a liai- 
son with the fire department physician to ensure that the health 
maintenance process for the fire deparmient is maintained. 

10.7 Fitness for Duty Evaluations. 

10.7.1 Fire departments shall establish a process to evaluate 
the ability of a member to perform essential job functions. 

10.7.2 The process to evaluate the fitness of a member to 
perform essential job functions shall be conducted by a quali- 
fied person and confirmed by the fire department physician. 

10.7.3 When a member is determined to be unable to per- 
form the essential job functions, the member shall be pro- 
vided assistance, treatment, or both that is intended to return 
the member to a condition that will allow him or her to per- 
form the essential job functions. 

10.7.4 A member who has been determined to be unable to 
perform the essential job functions will only be returned to 
duty when a qualified penson has confirmed that the member 
can perform the essential job funcfions. 



services that can assist them with restoring their health and 
their job performance to expected levels. 

11.1,3* The fire department shall adopt a written policy state- 
ment on alcoholism, substance abuse, and other problems 
covered by the member assistance program. 

11.1.4* Written rules shall be established specifying how 
records are to be maintained, the policies governing retention 
and access to records, and the procedure for release of infor- 
mation. 

11.1.4.1 These rules shall identify to whom and under what 
conditions information can be released and what use, if any, 
can be made of records for purposes of research, program 
evaluation, and reports. 

11.1.5 Member records maintained by a member assistance 
program shall not become part of a member's personnel file. 

11,2 Wellness Program. 

11.2.1* The wellness program shall provide health promotion 
activides that identify physical and mental health risk factors 
and shall provide education and counseling for the purpose of 
preventing health problems and enhancing overall well-being. 

11.2.2* The tire department shaU provide a program on the 
health effects associated with the use of tobacco products. 

11.2.2.1 The fire department shall provide a smoking/ tobacco 
use cessation program. 



Chapter 12 Critical Incident Stress Program 

12.1 General. 

12.1.1 The fire department physician shall provide medical 
guidance in the management of the critical incident stress 
program. 

12.1.2* The fire department shall adopt a written policy that 
establishes a program designed to relieve the stress generated 
by an incident that could adversely attect the psychological 
and physical well-being of fire department members. 

12.1.3 The policy shall establish criteria for implementation 
of the program. 

12.1.4 The program shall be made available to members for 
incidents including but not limited to mass casualties, large 
life loss incidents, fatalities involving children, fatalities or in- 
juries involving fire department members, and any other situ- 
ations that affect the psychological and physical well-being of 
fire department members. 



Chapter 11 Member Assistance 
and Wellness Programs 

11.1 Member Assistance Program, 

11.1,1* The fire deparmient shall provide a member assistance 
program that identifies and assists members and dreir immediate 
families with substiince abuse, stress, and personal problems that 
adversely affect fire department work performance. 

11.1.2 The member assistance program .shall refer members 
and, if appropriate, their immediate families to health care 



Annex A Explanatory Material 

Annex A is not a part of the requirements of this NIVA document 
but is included for informational purposes only. This annex contains 
explanatory material, numbered to correspond with the applicable text 
paragraphs. 

A.1.2.3 It is possible that an existing program or policy can 
satisfy the requirements of this standard; if so, it can be 
adopted in whole or in part in order to comply with this 
standard. Examples of such existing programs and policies 
can be a mandatory SCBA rule, seat belt rule, corporate 
safety program, or municipal employee assistance program. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-29 



The achievement of these objectives is intended to help 
prevent accidents, injuries, and exposures and to reduce 
the severity of those accidents, injuries, and exposures that 
do occur. They will also help to prevent exposure to hazard- 
ous materials and contagious diseases and to reduce the 
probability of occupadonal fatalities, illnesses, and disabili- 
ties affecting fire service personnel. 

A. 1.4.1 In no case should the equivalency ;ifford less compe- 
tency of members or safjety to members than that which, in the 
judgment of the authority ha\'ingjurisdiction, would be provided 
by compliance \vith meeting the requirements of Chapter 5. 

A.1.5.1 The specific determinadon of the authority having 
jurisdiction depends on the mechanism under which this stan- 
dard is adopted and enforced. Wliere the standard is adopted 
voluntarily by a particular fire department for its own use, the 
avtthority having jurisdiction should be the fire chief or the 
political entity that is responsible for the operation of the fire 
department. Where the standard is legally adopted and en- 
forced by a body having regulatory authority over a fire depart- 
ment, such as the federal, state, or local government or a po- 
litical subdivision, this body is responsible for making those 
determinations as the authority having jurisdiction. The plan 
should take into account the services the fire department is 
required to provide, the financial resources available to the 
fire department, the availability of personnel, the availability 
of trainers, and such other factors as will affect the fire depart- 
ment's ability to achieve compliance. 

A.1.5.2 For a fire department to evaluate its compliance with 
diis standard, it must develop .some type of logical process. The 
worksheet in Annex B (Figure B.2) illustrates one way that an 
action plan can be developed to detennine code compliance. 

This standard is intended to be implemented in a logical 
sequence, based upon a balanced evaluation of economic as 
well as public safety and personnel safety factors. The compli- 
ance schedule request assures that risk is objectively assessed 
and reasonable priorities set toward reaching compliance. In- 
terim compensator)' measures are intended to assure that 
safety action is being addressed until full compliance is 
reached and formally adopted into the fire department orga- 
nization's policies and procedures. This can include, but is not 
limited to, increased inspections, testing, temporary suspen- 
sion or restriction of use of specific equipment, .specialized 
training, and administrative controls. 

A.3.2.1 Approved. The National Fire Protection Association 
does not approve, inspect, or certify any installations, proce- 
dures, equipment, or materials; nor does it approve or evalu- 
ate testing laboratories. In determining the acceptability of 
installations, proceduies, equipment, or materials, the author- 
ity having jurisdiction may ba.se acceptance on compliance 
with NFPA or other appropriate standards. In the absence of 
such standards, said authority may require evidence of proper 
installation, procedure, or vise. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion may also refer to the listings or labeling practices of an 
organization that is concerned with product evaluations and is 
thus in a position to determine compliance with appropriate 
standards for the current production of listed items. 

A.3.2.2 Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The phrase "au- 
thority having jurisdiction," or its acronym AHJ, is used in NFPA 
documents in a broad manner, since jurisdictions and approval 
agencies vary, as do dieir responsibilities. Where public safety is 



primary, the authority havingjuiisdiction may be a federal, state, 
local, or other regional department or individual such as a fire 
chief; fire marshal; chief of a fire prevention bureau, labor de- 
partment, or health department; building ofticial; electrical in- 
spector; or others having statutory authority. For insurance pur- 
poses, an insurance inspection department, rating bureau, or 
other insurance company representative may be the authority 
having jurisdiction. In many circumstances, the property owner 
or his or her designated agent assumes the role of the authority 
having jurisdiction; at government instiillations, the command- 
ing officer or departmental ofificial may be the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

A.3.3.3 Air Transfer. Air is allowed to flow from the cylinder 
with a higher pressure to the cylinder with a lower pressure 
until the pressure equalizes, at which time the transfer line is 
disconnected between the two cylinders. 

A.3.3.4 Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting. Such rescue and 
fire-fighting actions are performed both inside and outside of 
the aircraft. 

A.3.3.5.1 Hazardous Atmosphere. A hazardous atmosphere 
can be immediately dangerous to life and health. 

A.3.3.8 Candidate. In an employment context, the Americans 
with Disabilities Act (discussed in further detail in Annex B of 
NFPA 1582, Standard on, Comprehensive Occupational Medical Pro- 
gram for Fire Departments) requires that any medical examina- 
tion to be conducted take place after an offer of employment 
is made and prior to the commencement of duties. Therefore, 
in the employment context, the definition of candidate i\\(m\d 
be applied so as to be consistent with that requirement. Volim- 
teer fire fighters have been deemed to be "employees" in some 
states or jurisdictions. Volunteer fire departments should seek 
legal counsel as to their legal responsibilities in these matters. 

A.3.3.10 Chemical Flash Fire. A policy of wearing protective 
clothing is needed that recognizes the significant threat to fire 
fighters who can be exposed to flash fires in either structural 
fire-fighting or hazardous materials environments. It is hoped 
that tire fighters utilize awareness training on burn injuries 
caused by the ignition of the environment. There is a distinct 
difference between chemical flash fires and flashovers occur- 
ring in structural fire-fighting environments. 

Flashover is a phenomenon that generates temperatures in 
the range of laOO^F to 1500°F (65d°C to 81.5°C). A chemical 
flash fire requires an ignition source and a chemical atmo- 
sphere that contains a concentration above the lower explo- 
sive limit (LEL) of the chemical. Chemical flash fires generate 
heat from lOOO^F to 1900°F (540°C to 1040°C). As "a rule, a 
structural fire flashover is confined to a designated area with 
walls as a boundary. The size of a chemical flash fire depends 
on the size of the gas or vapor cloud and, when ignited, the 
flame front expands outward in the form of a fireball. The 
resulting effect of the fireball's energy with respect to radiant 
heat significandy enlarges the hazard areas around the gas 
released. [1991, 200.5] 

A.3.3.12 Clear Text. Ten codes or agency-specific codes should 
not be used when tising clear text. 

A.3.3.16 Company. For fire suppression, jurisdictions exist 
where the response capability of the initial arriving company is 
configured with the response of two apparatus. In some juris- 
dictions, apparatus is not configured with seated and belted 
positions for four personnel and therefore would respond 
with an additional vehicle in consort with the initial arriving 



2007 Edition 



1500-30 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



engine to carry additional personnel. This response would be 
to ensure that a minimum of four personnel are assigned to 
and deployed as a company. The intent of this definition and 
the requirements in the standard is to ensure that these two 
(or more) pieces of apparatus would always be dispatched and 
respond together as a single company. Some examples of this 
include the following: 

(1) Engine and tanker/ tender that would be responding out- 
side a municipal water district 

(2) Multiple-piece company assignment, specified in a fire de- 
partment's re.sponse stimdard operating procedures, such 
as an engine company response with a pumper and a hose 
wagon 

(3) Engine with a vehicle personnel carrier 

(4) Engine with an ambulance or rescue unit 

Company, as used in this standard, is synonymous with com- 
pany unit, response team, crew, and response group, rather 
than a synonym for a fire department. 

A.3.3.17 Confined Space. Additionally, a confined space is 
further defined as having one or more of the following 
characteristics: 

(1) The area contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous 
atmosphere, including an Oxygen-deficient atmosphere. 

(2) The area contains a material with a potential to engulf a 
member. 

(3) The area has an internal configuration .such that a mem- 
ber could be trapped by inwardly converging walls or a 
floor that slopes downward and tapers to a small cross 
section. 

(4) The area contains any other recognized serious hazard. 

A.3.3.21 Cryogenic Liquid. Cryogenic liquids include, but are 
not limited to, heliiun, nitrogen, and oxygen. [1991, 2005] 

A.3. 3.24.1 Communicable Disease. Also known as contagious 
disease. 

A.3.3.30 Faceshield. Faceshields should be used only in con- 
junction with spectacles and/or goggles. 

A.3.3.34 Fire Departnrent. The term fire department can in- 
clude any public, governmental, private, industrial, or military 
organization engaging in this type of activity. 

A.3.3.35 Fire Department Facility. This does not include loca- 
tions where a fire department can be svmimoned to perform 
emergency operations or other duties, unless such premises 
are normally under the control of the fire department. 

A.3. 3.37.1 Proximity Fire Fighting. Specialized thermal pro- 
tection from exposure to high levels of radiant heat, as well as 
thermal protection from conductive and convective heat, is 
necessary for persons involved in such operations due to the 
■scope of these operations and the close distance to the fire at 
which these operations are conducted, although direct entry 
into flame is not made. These operations usually are exterior 
operations but could be combined with interior operations. 
Proximity fire fighting is not structural fire fighting but could 
be combined with structural fire-fighting operations. 

A.3.3.39 Fire Suppression. Fire suppression includes all activi- 
ties performed at the scene of a fire incident or training exer- 
cise that expose fire department members to the dangers of 
heat, flame, smoke, and other products of combustion, explo- 
sion, or structural collapse. 



A.3.3.41 Hazard. Hazards include the characteristics of facili- 
ties, equipment, systems, property, hardware, or other objects 
and the actions and inactions of people that create such hazards. 

A.3.3.47 Health and Safety Officer. This individual can be the 
incident safety officer, or that can also be a separate function. 

A.3.3.54 Incident Management System (IMS). The .system is 
also referred to as an incident command system (ICS). 

A.3.3.55 Incident Safety Officer. The incident safety officer 
can have assistants. 

A.3.3.57 Infection Control Program. This program includes, 
but is not limited to, implementation of written policies and 
standard operating procedures regarding exposure follow-up 
measures, immunizations, members' health screening pro- 
grams, and educational programs. 

A.3.3.62 Liquefied Gas. Examples of liquefied gases include, 
but are not limited to, ammonia, 1,2-butadiene, chlorine, eth- 
ylene oxide, hydrogen chloride, liquefied petroleum gas, and 
methyl chloride. Testing in NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor- 
Protective Ensembks for Hazardous Materials Emergencies, is only 
conducted for a limited number of liquefied gases. Users 
should consult the technical data package to determine which 
liquefied gases have been tested with the suit's primary mate- 
rials. [1991,2005] 

A.3.3.63 Member. A fire department member can be a full- 
time or part-time employee or a paid or unpaid volunteer, can 
occupy any position or rank within the fire department, and 
can engage in emergency operations. 

A.3.3.69.1 Defensive Operations. Defensive operations are 
generally perfotTaed from the exterior of structures and are 
based on a determination that the risk to personnel exceeds 
the potential benefits of offensive actions. 

A.3.3.69.5 Special Operations. Special operations include wa- 
ter rescue, extrication, hazardous materials, confined space 
entry, high-angle rescue, aircraft rescue and fire fighting, and 
other operations requiring specialized training. 

A.3.3.71 Particulates. Particulates do not include aerosols or 
suspended liquid droplets in air. Aerosols are considered liquids. 

A.3.3.75 Protective Ensemble. The elements of the protective 
ensemble are coats, trousers, coveralls, helmets, gloves, foot- 
wear, and interface components. 

A.3.3.78 Rapid Intervention Crew/Company (RIC). Emer- 
gency .sen'ices personnel respond to many incidents that 
present a high risk to personnel safety. Departments in com- 
pliance with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134, Inspiratory protection, 
must have a minimum of two persons on-scene, fully equipped 
when members are operating in an IDLH or potentially IDLH 
atmosphere. The primary purpose is the rescue of injured, 
lost, or trapped fire fighters. Departments utilizing an inci- 
dent management system in accordance with NFPA 1 561 , Stan- 
dard on E?7iergem,y Services Incident Management System, or 29 CFR 
1910.120, Hazardous tuaste operations and emergency response, 
along with a personnel accountability system have incorpo- 
rated the RIC into their management system. Many depart- 
ments have redefined their response plans to include the dis- 
patch of an additional company (engine, rescue, or truck) to 
respond to incidents and stand by as the RIC. Incident com- 
manders can assign additional RICs based on the size and 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-31 



complexity of the incident scene. In some departments they 
can also be known as a rapid intervention team. At wildland 
incidents this wovild be addressed through the planning pro- 
cess and contingency planning. 

A.3.3.82 Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE). Examples 
are filter respirators, chemical cartridge or canister respira- 
tors, air-line respirators, powered air-purifying respirators, 
and self-contained breathing apparatus. 

A.3.3.90 Spectacles. Safety glasses are an example of spectacles. 

A.4.1.1 The organizational statement is a very important basis 
for many of the provisions of this standard. The statement sets 
forth the legal basis for operating a fire department, the orga^ 
nizational structure of the fire department, number of mem- 
bers, training requirements, expected functions, and authori- 
ties and responsibilities of various members or defined 
positions. 

A key point is to clearly set out the specific services the fire 
department is authorized and expected to perform. Most fire 
departments are responsible to a governing body The govern- 
ing body has the right and should assert its authority to set the 
specific services and the limiLs of the ser\'ices the fire depart- 
ment will provide and has the responsibility to furnish the 
necessaiy resovuxes for delivery of the designated services. 
The fire department should provide its governing body with a 
specific description of each service with options or alternatives 
and with an accurate analysis of the costs and resources 
needed for each service. 

Such sei"vices could include structural fire fighting, wild- 
land fire fighting, airport/aircraft fire fighting, emergency 
medical seraces, hazardous materials response, high-angle 
rescue, heavy rescue, and others. 

Spelling out the specific parameters of services to be pro- 
vided allows the tire department to plan, staff, equip, train, 
and deploy members to perform these duties. It also gives the 
governing body an accounting of the costs of .services and al- 
lows it to select those services they can afford to provide. Like- 
wise, the governing body should idenUfy services it cannot af- 
ford to provide and cannot authorize the fire department to 
deliver, or it should assign those services to another agency. 

The fire department should be no different from any other 
government agency that has the parameters of its authority 
and services clearly defined by the governing body. 

Legal counsel should be used to assure that any statutoiy 
senices and responsibilities are being met. 

The majority of public fire departments are established under 
the charter provisions of their governing body or through the 
adoption of statutes. These acts define the legal basis for operat- 
ing a fire department, the mission of die organization, the duties 
that are authorized and expected to be peribrmed, and the au- 
thority and responsibilities that are assigned to certain individu- 
als to direct the operations of the fire department. 

The documents that officially establish the fire department 
as an identifiable organization are necessary to determine spe- 
cific responsibilities and to determine the parties responsible 
for compliance with the provisions of this standard. 

In many cases, these documents could be a part of state 
laws, a municipal charter, or an annual budget. In such cases, 
it would be appropriate to make these existing documents 
part of the organizational statement, if applicable. 



In cases other than governmen tally operated public fire de- 
partments, there is a need to foraially establish the existence of 
the organization through the adoption of a charter, the approval 
of a constitution or articles of incorporation, or some equivalent 
official action of an authorized body. A fire department that op- 
erates entirely within the private sector, such as an industriiil fire 
department, could legally establish and operate a fire protection 
organization by the adoption of a corporate policy as described 
in the organizational statement. 

In addition to specifically defining the organization that is 
expected to comply with this standard, 4.1.1 requires that the 
organizational structure, membership, expected functions, 
and training requirements be contained in documents that 
are accessible for examination. These requirements are in- 
tended to reinforce the fact that the fire department is an 
identifiable organization that operates with known and spe- 
cific expectations. 

Where a fire department functions as a unit of a larger 
entity, such as one of several municipal departments or a par- 
ticular unit of a private corporation, the larger organization is 
often able to provide some of the same elements that are re- 
quired to be provided by the fire department. This would sat- 
isfy the requirements for the fire department to provide those 
elements. 

A.4.L2 Additional information on fire department organiza- 
tion and operations can be found in Section 7 of the NFPAfire 
Protection Handbook and in Chapter 4 of Managing Fire and Res- 
cue Services, published by the International City/County Man- 
ageinent Association. 

A.4.2.1 The risk management plan should consider all fire 
department operations, the duties and responsibilities of 
members (uniform and civilian), and policies and proce- 
dures. The risk management plan should include goals and 
objectives to ensure that the risks associated with the daily 
operations of the fire department are identified and effec- 
tively managed. 

For additional guidance on the development of a risk man- 
agement plan, see NFPA 12,50, Recommended Practice in Emer- 
gency Service Organization Risli Management. 

A.4.2.3 The entire risk management decision-making pro- 
cess can be summarized as follows: 

( 1 ) Identify or recognize 

(2) Evaluate 

(3) Estabhsh priorities for action 

(4) Act and control 

(5) Monitor and re-evaluate 

Discussions about frequency and risk arise in the evalua- 
tion phase. What are the real or potential risks in terms of 
frequency and severity to fire department members? How will 
the organization develop effective control measures to ensure 
a safe work environment for all members? 

Since no two fire departments are ahke, there is no stan- 
dard scale to measure and evaluate frequency and risk. Some 
fire departments will have a greater or lesser degree of toler- 
ance for risk than others. The intent of the risk management 
process is for a fire department to develop a stiindard level of 
safety. This standard level of safety defines the parameters of 
the acceptable degree of risk for which members perform 
their job functions. 



2007 Edition 



1500-32 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAEETi'AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



By definition, frequency is how often something does, or 
might, happen. Risk is a measure of the consequences if an 
undesirable event occurs. There are many factors that enter 
into the risk discussion, including cost, dme lost from work, 
loss of use of resources, inabihty to deliver services, and fewer 
services available. Each risk will have its own set of factors that 
will dictate how the fire department will try to determine how 
severe the consequences might be. 

This scale is used to establish the degree of priority. Priority 
of the risk is in direct reladon to inherent risks that have had a 
harmful effect on the department and its members. 

A primary purpose of the risk management plan is to focus 
efforts on incidents that might not occur very often (low fre- 
quency) but that could have severe consequences associated 
with them (high risk). The reason for the focus on low 
frequency/high risk incidents is that since they do not occur 
on a frequent basis, responders might not be as prepared to 
deal with them, and the outcomes can be harmful or detri- 
mental to fire fighters. Examples of low frequency/high risk 
events could include high rise fires, technical rescues, multi- 
alarm fires, or mass casualty incidents. 

There are two factors that will ensure that a low frequency/ 
high risk event will be successful. The first factor is an aggres- 
sive training program. Every day is a training day. With an 
aggressive training program, this will ensure the successful 
outcome of an incident. The second factor is rapid prime de- 
cision making. Personnel, through training and condnuous 
retraining, have the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilides 
(ICSA) to ensure the successful outcome of a low frequency/ 
high risk incident. 

Figure A.4.2. 3 illustrates the relationship between frequency 
and risk, and emphasizes the importance of addressing low 
frequency/high risk incidents. 



Risk 



Low Frequency 
High Risk 



High Frequency 
High Risk 



Low Frequency 
Low Risk 



High Frequency 
Low Risk 



Frequency 
FIGURE A.4.2.3 Risk and Frequency Graph. 



A.4.3.1 The following is an example of a safety policy statement: 
It is the policy of the fire department to provide and to 
operate with the highest possible levels of safety and health for 
all members. The prevention and reduction of accidents, inju- 
ries, and occupational illnesses are goals of the fire depart- 
ment and shall be primary considerations at all times. This 
concern for safety and health applies to all members of the tire 
department and to any other persons who could be involved 
in fire department activities. 

A.4.3.3 Experience has shown that there is often a significant 
difference between a written occupational safety and health 
program and the actual program that has been implemented. 



Periodic evaluations are one method the fire chief can use to 
measure how the program is being conducted. This evaluation 
should be conducted by a qualified individual from outside of 
the fire department, because outside evaluators provide a dif- 
ferent perspective, which can be constructive. Outside evalua- 
tors could include municipal risk managers, safety directors, 
consultants, insurance carrier representatives, fire chiefs, 
safety officers, or others having knowledge of fire department 
operations and occupational safety and health program 
implementation. 

A.4.4.3 The responsibility for establishing and enforcing 
safety rules and regulations rests with the management of the 
fire department. Enforcement implies that appropriate ac- 
tion, including disciplinary measures if necessary, will be taken 
to ensure compliance. A standard approach to enforcement 
should address both sanctions and rewards. All fire depart- 
ment members should recognize and support the need for a 
standard regulatory approach to safety and health. In addition 
to the management responsibilities, an effective safety pro- 
gram requires commitment and support from all members 
and member organizations. 

A.4.4.5 The importance of investigating accidents to person- 
nel, equipment, or vehicles in relation to the prevention of 
reoccurring accidents is time-proven. However, the occur- 
rence of an accident is, fortunately, relatively rare considering 
the amount of action carried out by fire service members. Re- 
lying solely on accident data to prescribe safety procedures is 
analogous with closing the birdcage after the bird has es- 
caped. 

Compared to the actual number of accidents reported, a 
host of incidents known as near-mfsses occur. The pfiilosophy 
of investigating near-miss incidents deserves merit. There are 
countless "almost-accidents" that occur every day. 

In an effort to truly prevent more accidents, and to effectively 
manage the safety of the personnel, near-miss incidents should 
be documented and quantified to truly determine the exposures 
to risk that people, equipment, and vehicles are exposed to each 
day These incident investigations begin with a ctilture that 
readily accepts near-miss incident reports without penalty or ridi- 
cule. Asystem should also be in place to investigate the near-miss 
incident to determine the causal factors involved. Examples can 
include human error, lack of education or training, lack of famil- 
iarity with/or operation of equipment, or equipment malfunc- 
tions or design shortcomings. 

Managing the infinite possibilities of near-miss incidents 
and accidents is laborious and seems ovenvhelming. Attention 
to the risks measured in the workplace and investigation into 
the potential incidents and accidents is, arguably, the begin- 
ning of an effective safety process. 

See also A.4.4.3. 

A.4.5.I One of the most important provisions for improving 
the safety and health of the fire service is through an official 
organizational structure that has the support of the members 
and the fire department management. Without official recog- 
nition and support, .safety and health committees could be 
ineffective showpieces, lack authority, or be dominated by par- 
ticular interests. To avoid such situations, it is recommended 
that a safety and health committee be composed of equal 
numbers of fire department management representatives and 
member representatives. Specific areas of responsibility of the 
joint .safety and health committee should be oudined in detail 
through written procedures or contractual negotiation. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-33 



A.4.5.3 The requirement in 4.5.3.1 for one regularly sched- 
uled meeting every 6 months is intended as a minimum. Com- 
mittee meetings should be held as often as necessary to deal 
with the issues confronting the group. The written minutes of 
each meeting should be distributed and posted in a conspicu- 
ous place in each fire station so that all members can be aware 
of issues under discussion and actions that have been taken. 

A.4.6.1 The data collecdon system for accidents, injuries, ill- 
nesses, exposures, and deaths should provide both incident- 
specific information for future reference and information that 
can be processed in studies of morbidity, mortality, and causa- 
tion. The use of standard coding as provided by NFPA 901, 
Standard Classifications for Incident Reporting and Fire Protection 
Data, will allow compatibility with national and regional re- 
porting systems. 

A.4.6.4 See NFPA 1401, liecommended Practice for Fire Seruice Train- 
ing I-iefKnts and Fiecords, for further information and gviidance. 

A.5.1.I The primary goal of all training, education, and pro- 
fessional development programs is the reduction of occupa- 
tional injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. As members progress 
through various job duties and responsibilities, the depart- 
ment should ensure the introduction of the necessar)' knowl- 
edge, skills, and abilities to members who are new in their job 
titles, as well as ongoing development of existing skills. 

These programs should include information to ensure 
that members are trained prior to performing individual 
duties, as well as ongoing professional development to en- 
sure competency. 

Training programs should include but not be limited to the 
following: 

(1) Community risk reduction (fire prevention, public edu- 
cation, investigation, etc.) 

(2) Health and safety 

(3) Fire suppression 

(4) Emergency medical 

(5) Human resources (leadership, supervision, interper- 
sonal dynamics, equal employment opportunity, etc.) 

(6) Incident management .system 

(7) Hazardous materials 

(8) Technical rescue 

(9) Information .systems and computer technology 

(10) Position-.specific development (fire fighter, company of- 
ficer, chief officer, telecommvmicator, investigator, in- 
spector, driver/operator, etc.) 

A.5.1.4 The u.se of a structured on-the-job training (OJT) 
program with close supetiJision can assist fire departments to 
uulize new members in non-lDLH environments during emer- 
gency operations. 

A.5.2.2 Statistics presented by the National Fire Protection As- 
sociation (NFPA) and the United States Fire Administration 
(USFA) indicate an alarming trend in the increased number of 
fire fighter fatalities and injuries associated with vehicle opera- 
tions. Fire departments respond with a variety of apparatus, and 
the members operating this apparatus must have the appropriate 
knowledge, skills, and abilities to operate this apparatus. 

The first step in this process is to properly train and edu- 
cate members on the various types of apparatus they could be 
required to operate. NFPA 1451, Standard for a Fire Service Ve- 
hicle Operations Training Program, provides the curriculum for 
members to develop the necessaiy knowledge, skills, and abili- 
ties to meet the reqidrements of 5.2.2. The second step is to 



ensure that the fire department performs an annual profi- 
ciency evaluation of all drivers/operators as required by Sec- 
tion 5.5. Also, the training and education should address the 
standard operating procedures associated with vehicle opera- 
tions, especially emergency response. 

These are necessary components of the department's plan 
to reduce the risks associated with vehicle operations. This is a 
systems approach to ensure the safety and health of members 
and the citizens they serve. 

A.5.2.6 In the United States, federal regulations require a 
minimum amount of training for fire service personnel who 
respond to hazardous materials incidents. These require- 
ments can be found in 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous xuaste opera- 
tions and emergency response (OSHA), and in 40 CFR 311, Worker 
protection (EPA) . These regulations affect all fire departments 
in the United States whether full-time career, part-time, com- 
bination career and volunteer, or fully volunteer. These regu- 
lations apply in all states and not just in those states with fed- 
erally approved state OSHA programs. 

In the U.S. federal regulations. First Responder Operations 
Level is defined as follows: 

First responders at the operations level are individuals 
who respond to releases or potential releases of hazardous 
substances as part of the initial response to the site for the 
purpose of protecting nearby persons, property, or the en- 
vironment from the effects of the release. They are trained 
to respond in a defensive fashion without actually trying to 
stop the release. Their function is to contain the release 
from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent 
exposure. First responders at the operational level shall 
have received at least 8 hours of training or have had suffi- 
cient experience to objectively demonstrate competency in 
the following areas in addition to those listed in the aware- 
ness level and the employer shall so certify: 

(1) Knowledge of the basic hazard and risk assessment tech- 
niques 

(2) Knowing how to properly select and use proper personal 
protective equipment provided to the First Re.sponder 
Operations Level 

(3) An understanding of basic hazardous materials terms 

(4) Knowing how to perform basic control, containment, 
and/or confinement operations within the capabilities of 
the resources and personal protective equipment avail- 
able with their unit 

(5) Knowing how to implement basic decontamination pro- 
cedures 

(6) An understanding of the relevant standard operating pro- 
cedures and termination procedures 

The First Responder Operations Level in both the U.S. fed- 
eral regulations and NFPA 472, Standard for Professional Compe- 
tence of Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents, is similar. 
Whereas the U.S. federal regulations (29 CFR 1910.120 or 40 
CFR 311) govern the fire service in every state in the United 
States, the minimum level of training for all fire fighters must 
be the First Re-sponder Operations Level. 

A.5.3.1 In order to en.sure compliance with the minimum 
reqtnrements of NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional 
Qiialifications, fire department training programs should be 
accredited by a training organization such as a state fire train- 
ing agency. In addition, NFPA 1405, Guide for Land-Based Fire 
Fighters Wio Respond to Marine Vessel Fires, provides recom- 
mended guidelines for those members who respond to ma- 
rine vessel fires. 



2007 Edition 



1500-34 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEAETH PROGRAM 



A.5.3.5 The essence of any successful respiratory protection 
training program is the establishment of written operational 
policies and the reinforcement of those policies through com- 
prehensive training. 

The AHJ should ensure that each member demonstrates 
knowledge of at least the following: 

(1) Why respiratory protection equipment (RPE) is necessary 
and how improper fit, usage, or maintenance can com- 
promise the protective effect of the respirator 

(2) What the limitations and capabilities of the RPE are 

(3) How to use the RPE effectively in emergency situations, 
including situations in which the RPE malfunctions 

(4) How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check the 
seals of the facepiece 

(5) What the procedures are for maintenance and storage of 
the respiratory protection equipment 

(6) How to recognize mecUcal signs and symptoms that can 
limit or prevent the effective use of RPE 

(7) The requirements of Section 7.9 

A.5.3.7 Several accidents have occurred where smoke bombs 
or other smoke-generating devices that produce a toxic atmo- 
sphere have been used for training exercises. Where training 
exercises are intended to simulate emergency conditions, 
smoke-generating devices that do not create a hazard are re- 
quired. 

A.5.3.8 Fire departments can utilize instructors who are not 
necessarily trained and/or certified to the requirements of 
NFPA 1041, Standard for Fire Service Insiriiclor Professional Quali- 
fications. However, in using these instructors they should en- 
sure that they are familiar with the fire department, its organi- 
zation, and its operations and, in addition, are qualified in 
that particular area of expertise. 

A.5.3.9 Members can be trained and/or certified at the local, 
state, or national level in Basic Life Support (BLS) or Ad- 
vanced Life Support (ALS) . Jurisdictions can require specialty 
skills within certain levels. 

A.5.3.10 Clothing that is made from 100 percent natural fi- 
bers or blends that are principally natural fibers should be 
selected over other fabrics that have poor thermal stability or 
ignite easily. 

The very fact that persons are fire fighters indicates that all 
clothing that they wear should be flame resistant (as chil- 
dren's sleepwear is required to be) to give a degree of safety if 
unanficipated happenings occur that expose the clothing to 
flame, flash, sparLs, or hot substances. This would include 
clothing worn under their structural fire-fighting protective 
ensemble. 

A.5.5.3 An annual skills check should address the profes- 
sional qualification specific to a member's assignment and 
duty expectation. As an example, a fire fighter is checked for 
skills required by NFPA 1001. A driver/operator would be 
checked for skills required by NFPA 1002, Standard for Fire Ap- 
paraius Driver/ Operator Professional Qualifications. 

A.6.1.1 It is recommended that only apparatus that were de- 
signed and manufactured to meet the 1991 or later editions of 
the NFPA fire apparatus standards or that have been refur- 
bished in accordance with NFPA 1912, Standard for Fire Appara- 
tus Refurbishing, to meet the 1991 or later editions of the NFPA 
fire apparatus standards be permitted to operate in first4ine 



service. This vvill ensure that, while the apparatus may not to- 
tally comply with the current edition of the Automotive Fire 
Apparatus standards, many of the improvements and up- 
grades required by the standards since 1991 are available for 
the fire fighters who use the apparatus. 

It is recommended that an apparatus manufactured prior 
to 1991 that is less than 25 years old, that has been properly 
maintained, and that is still in serviceable condition be placed 
in reserve status and upgraded to incorporate as many fea- 
tures of the post-1991 fire apparatus as possible. Apparatus not 
manufactured to NFPA fire apparatus standards or that is over 
25 years old should be replaced. 

See Annex D of NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive FireAp- 
paratu,% for more complete guidelines for first-line and reserve 
fire apparatus. 

A.6.1.1.1 Information regarding ambulance specifications 
can be found in the current U.S. Federal Government General 
Services Administration's Federal Specification for the "Star- 
of-Life Ambulance," KKK-A-1822E. 

A.6.1.5 The means of holding the item in place or the com- 
partment should be designed to minimize injury to persons in 
the enclosed area of the fire apparatus or patient compart- 
ment of an ambulance. Loose equipment during the event of 
a crash, a rapid deceleration, or a rapid acceleration can be 
the cause of serious injury or the crash of the apparatus. 

A.6.2.1 NFPA 1451, Standard for a Fire Service Vehicle Operations 
Training Program, can be used to meet the requirements of an 
"approved driver training program." 

A.6.2.2 The determination of driver's license requirements is 
a function of a particular authority in each location. This 
agency can be a state or provincial Department of Transporta- 
tion or an equivalent agency. Other authorities, such as mili- 
tary branches, have the authority to issue permits to operate 
their vehicles. It is a responsibility of the fire department to 
determine the requirements that apply in each situation and 
for each class of vehicle. 

A.6.2.3 Policies should be enacted to limit unnecessary and 
inappropriate emergency response, as a means of reducing 
the risk of accidents involving emergency vehicles. 

A.6.2.4 The driver of any vehicle has legal responsibility for 
its safe and prudent operation at all times. While the driver is 
responsible for the operation of the vehicle, the officer is re- 
sponsible for the actions of the driver. 

A.6.2.7 The development, implementation, and periodic re- 
view of standard operating procedures for driving any fire de- 
partment vehicle is an important element in clearly identify- 
ing the fire department's policy on what is expected of drivers. 
Safe arrival is of prime importance. Standard operating proce- 
dures should include a "challenge and response" dialogue be- 
tween the vehicle driver on an emergency response and the 
officer or other member in the driver compartment. The 
"challenge and response" dialogue should be instituted to de- 
termine the driver's intentions when approaching any per- 
ceived or identified hazard on the response route, to remind 
the driver of the presence of the hazard and the planned pro- 
cedures for managing the hazard, and to ensure that the 
driver is coping with stressors encountered during the re- 
sponse and not focusing only on arriving at the site of the 
emergency. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-35 



The specific inclusion of railroad grade crossing is based 
upon recommendations made by the National Transportation 
Safety Board (NTSB) to NFPAfollowing the 1989 investigafion 
of a collision between a fire department pumper and a passen- 
ger train. The NTSB report states that "planning how to safely 
traverse grade crossings encountered en route is a necessary 
part of any fire company's response plan." 

NTSB recommends that the following be considered when 
developing the plans: 

If it is not practical to plan an emergency response route 
that avoids grade crossings, selection of crossings that are 
equipped with automatic warning devices is preferable to se- 
lection of those that are not. All planning should include iden- 
tification of the locafion at the crossing from which a driver or 
other observer assigned to the apparatus can see the maxi- 
mum available distance down the track(s) on both sides. 

At crossings over a single straight track with no nearby ob- 
structions, briefly stopping or slowing the apparatus to allow a 
proper scan both left and right may be .sufficient. If the tracks 
are curved, vision is obstructed, or the crossing has more than 
one set of tracks where the presence of one train may hide the 
approach of another, sight distance may be optimized by hav- 
ing one or more members cross the tracks on foot and look for 
approaching trains. 

Fire fighter fatality studies describe 10 incidents that oc- 
curred from 1984 to 2004 in which fire fighters were killed 
during the backing of fire apparatus. This is a significant is.sue 
that the fire serA'ice must address in terms of standard operat- 
ing procedures, training programs, and implementation. 

When fire apparatus is in the backing mode, standard 
operating procedures need to dictate that members as- 
signed to back apparatus be in communicadon with the 
driver/operator. This can be accomplished by using the ra- 
dio system, intercom system, or other means. Standard op- 
eradng procedures should dictate that the apparatus not be 
moved until verbal and visual contact is made with the 
driver/operator and the backer. Also, standard operadng 
procedures must dictate that the backer be in the line of 
sight with the driver/operator via the apparatus mirrors on 
either side of the apparatus. The intent is to ensure that the 
backing of fire apparatus is accomplished in a safe and ef- 
fective manner. 

A.6.2.7.I Many incidents require the non-emergency re- 
sponse of fire apparatus. Each fire department must identify 
incidents that do not require the use of warning lights and 
sirens. Examples of non-emergency incidents can include 
lockouts, carbon monoxide detectors sounding, a fire re- 
ported out, assist law enforcement, backfills or move-ups, and 
other incidents as determined by the AHJ. The intent is to 
reduce the risk to fire department members and the citizens 
of the community from unnecessary harm. The response can 
always be upgraded to emergency response if the situation 
warrants based upon additional information. 

Fire department water tankers (tenders) provide a mobile 
water supply to support fire fighting and other fire depart- 
ment operations. They are generally used in rural areas with- 
out fire hydrant coverage but can also be found in the fleets of 
many suburban and urban fire departments. 

Although their number as a percent of the overall appara- 
tus fleets is small, estimated atjust 2 percent, they are involved 
in a disproportionate number of crashes that are fatal to fire 



fighters and others. A study of fire fighter fatalities from 1990 
through 2000 found that fire tankers were the second most 
common vehicle type involved in crashes that killed fire fight- 
ers. Tankers/ tenders were second only to personal vehicles in 
the number of fatal crashes. 

The United States Fire Administration (USFA) produced a 
report entided Safe Operation of Fire Tankers in 2003. The report 
(FA-248) is available free from the USFA in print and can be 
downloaded from the USFA web site at www.usfa.fema.gov. 
The report provides comprehensive information on the safe 
construction, use, and operation of fire department tankers/ 
tenders. The report deals with fire apparatus with water tanks 
sizes of 1000 gal (3800 L) or more. The recommendations 
contained in the report, therefore, can apply to any piece of 
fire apparatus with a large water tank. 

Attention to a small number of operational recommenda- 
tions can make the operation of fire tankers/ tenders safer for 
fire fighters and those that share the road with this type of 
apparatus. 

The following recommendations should become part of 
standard operating procedures for departments operating 
tankers (tenders); 

(1 ) Fire fighters should always wear seat belts when driving or 
as the passenger in any vehicle, including tankens/ 
tenders. The fire fighter's best chance for survival is to 
remain with the vehicle during a crash and to be pro- 
tected by the structure of the vehicle. During the period 
from 1990 to 2001, 82 percent of the fire fighters killed in 
tanker/ tender crashes were not wearing seat belts. 

(2) If the right-hand wheels of the apparatirs leave the paved 
.surface of the roadway for any reason, the apparatus 
should be slowed before attempting to return all wheels 
to the roadway. In 66 percent of the fatal tanker/ tender 
crashes from 1990 to 2001, the right wheels of the appara- 
tus left the roadway. If the vehicle is returned to the road- 
way surface at speed, the apparatus can veer violently to 
the left. Drivers then often overcompensate by steering to 
the right, and the apparatus either begins to roll or leaves 
the roadway and crashes. Slowing the vehicle prior to re- 
turning to the roadway will minimize the chances of such 
an event. 

(3) Sloio down. Speed was cited as a factor in 55 percent of 
fatal crashes of fire department tankers/ tenders from 
1990 to 2001. The weight of the water and the weight of 
the apparatus combine to make fire department 
tankers/tenders very heavy vehicles. They cannot stop 
quickly, and their handling characteristics are unlike 
other fire apparatus. The USFA Safe Operation of Fire 
Tankers report recommends that tankers/ tenders never 
be operated over the posted speed limit and that they 
be controlled to speeds at or less than the cautionary 
speeds listed on yellow signs on curves. 

(4) Make sure that the apparatus is up to the task. Fuel or 
milk tankers converted to fire department water tank- 
ers usually do not have the brake capacity or tank 
baffles that are needed to transport water — fuel and 
milk are lighter than water. The total weight of a 
tanker/ tender should not exceed the rated capacity of 
the vehicle's braking system. In addition to weight con- 
cerns, tankers/tenders must be maintained in a ready 
state. Their mechanical .systems must be checked and 
maintained on a regular basis. 



2007 Edition 



1500-36 



FIRE DEP/\RTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGR/\M 



(5) Ensure that drivers/operators have the necessary knowl- 
edge, skills, and abilities to specifically drive and operate 
tankers/tenders. Tankers/ tenders do not operate or have 
the same driving characteristics as other fire apparatus. 
Drivers should be specifically trained on each vehicle, and 
untrained drivers should not be allowed to operate 
tankers/tenders. 

(6) Drive with the tank completely full or completely empty. 
Even with proper baffling, a semi-full water tank will allow 
water to move more freely. This water movement can cre- 
ate control problems for the apparatus operator. If the 
full tank of water is not used, dump the rest of the load in 
a safe place and drive the tanker/tender empty until the 
entire tank can be filled. 

A.6.2.8 Accidents at intersections contribute to both civilian 
and fire fighter deaths and injuries while fire department ve- 
hicles are responding to or returning from an emergency inci- 
dent. Coming to a complete stop when there are any intersection 
hazards and proceeding only when the driver can do so safely will 
reduce accidents and the risk of injury or death. It is recom- 
mended that intersection control devices be installed that allow 
emergency vehicles to control traffic lights at intersections. 

A.6.2.10 Vehicle accidents at railroad crossings have resulted 
in a number of deaths and injuries to fire department mem- 
bers. A study by NTSB concluded that a train's warning horn 
becomes an ineffective device for warning large vehicles or 
trucks unless the vehicle driver stops, idles the engine, turns 
off all radios, fans, wipers, and other noise-producing equip- 
ment in the cab, lowers the window, and listens for a train's 
horn before entering a grade crossing. 

A.6.2.14 When members respond to incidents or to the fire 
station in their own vehicles, the operation of these vehicles is 
governed by all applicable traffic laws and codes as enacted by 
the AHJ. All members should be held stricdy accountable for 
compliance with the applicable traffic laws and regulations as 
well as fire department rules, regulations, and procedures re- 
lating to emergency response. Where traffic laws and regula- 
tions allow for private vehicles to be operated as emergency 
vehicles, the fire department should only allow members who 
have met the requirements to drive fire department vehicles 
in an emergency mode to drive privately owned vehicles in an 
emergency mode. 

A.6.2.14.2 For more information, see FA-220, Firefighter Fakd- 
ily Introspective Study, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 
United States Fire Administration, April 2002. 

A.6.3.1 It is intended that the requirements of Section 6.3 
apply to all situations when persons or members are riding on 
fire apparatus other than for the specific variances in 6.3.4 and 
6.3.5. Included in the "seated and belted" requirement are any 
times the fire apparatus is traveling to, participating in, or re- 
turning from any funeral, piuade, or public relations/ 
education event. Fire fighters cannot be allowed to ride on the 
outside of apparatus in order to fight wildland fires. The Fire 
Line Safety Committee (FLSC) of the National Wildfire Coor- 
dinating Group (NWCG) represents the U.S. Forest Sei-vice, 
Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Fish 
and Wildlife Agency, National Park Service, and National Asso- 
ciation of State Foresters. Their position is that the practice of 
lire figliters riding on the outside of vehicles and fighting wild- 
land fires from these positions is very dangerous, and they 
strongly recommend this not be allowed. One issue is the ex- 
posure to personnel in unprotected positions. Persons have 



been killed while pertbrming this operation. Also, the vehicle 
driver's vision is impaired. The second issue is that this is not 
an effective way to extinguish the fire, as it can allow the ve- 
hicle to pass over or by areas not completely extinguished. Fire 
can then flare up underneath or behind the vehicle and could 
cut off escape routes. The FLSC and the iSTWCG strongly rec- 
ommend that two fire fighters, each with a hose line, walk 
ahead and aside of the vehicle's path, both fire fighters on the 
same side of the vehicle (not one on each side), in clear view 
of the driver, with the vehicle being driven in uninvolved ter- 
rain. This allows the fire fighters to operate in an unhurried 
manner, with a clear view of fire conditions and the success of 
the extinguishment. Areas not extinguished should not be by- 
passed unless follow-up crews are operating behind the lead 
unit and there is no danger to escape routes or to personnel. 

A.6.3.3 There are instances in which members need to pro- 
vide emergency medical care while the vehicle is in motion. In 
some situations, the provision of such medical care would not 
allow the members to remain seated and secured to the ve- 
hicle. Such situations, while they occur infrequently, could in- 
clude performing chest compressions during cardiopulmo- 
nary resuscitation (CPR). If a vehicle accident were to occur 
while an unsecured member was performing necessary emer- 
gency medical care, there would be substantial risk of injury to 
the member. 

A.6.3.4 The following recommendations will assist the user in 
implementing 6.3.4: 

(1) Hose loading procedures should be specified in a written 
standard operating procedure that includes at least the 
safety conditions hsted in A.6.3.4(2) through A.6.3.4(7). 
All members involved in the hose loading should have 
been trained in the.se procedures. 

(2) There should be a member, other than those members 
loading hose, assigned as a safety obsei-ver. The safety ob- 
ser\'er should have an unobstructed view of the hose load- 
ing operation and be in visual and voice contact with the 
apparatus operator. 

(3) Non-fire department vehicular traffic should be excluded 
from the area or should be under the control of authorized 
traffic control persons. 

(4) The fire apparatus can be driven only in a forward direc- 
tion at a speed of .5 mph (8 kmph) or le.ss. 

(5) No members should be allowed to stand on the tailstep, 
sidesteps, running boards, or any other location on the 
apparatus while the apparatus is in motion. 

(6) Members should be permitted to be in the hose bed but 
should not stand while the apparatus is in motion. 

(7) Prior to the beginning of each hose loading operation, 
the situation should be evaluated to ensure compliance 
with all the provisions of the written procedures. If the 
written procedures cannot be complied with, or if there is 
any question as to the safety of the operation for the spe- 
cific situation, then the hose should not be loaded on 
moving fire apparatus. 

A.6.3.5 The following recommendations will assist the user in 
meeting the requirements of the standard: 

(1) Tiller training procedures should be specified in a written 
standard operating procedure that includes at least the 
safety conditions listed in A.6.3.5{2) through A.6.3.5(6). 
All members involved in tiller training should have been 
trained in the.se procedures. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-37 



(2) The aerial apparatus should be equipped with seating po- 
sitions for both the tiller instructor and the tiller trainee. 
Both seating positions should be equipped with seat belts 
for each individual. The tiller instructor should be per- 
mitted to take a position alongside the tiller trainee. 

(3) The tiller instructor's seat should be permitted to be de- 
tachable. Where the instructor's seat is detachable, the 
detachable seat assembly should be structurally sufficient 
to support and secure the instructor. The detachable seat 
assembly should be attached and positioned in a safe 
manner immediately adjacent to the regular tiller seat. 
The detachable seat assembly should be equipped with a 
seat belt or vehicle safety harness. The detachable seat 
assembly should be attached and used only for training 
purposes. 

(4) Both the tiller instructor and the tiller trainee should be 
seated and belted. 

(5) The instructor and trainee should wear and use both hel- 
met and eye protection if not seated in an enclosed area. 

(6) In the event the aerial apparatus is needed for an emer- 
gency response during a tiller training se.s,sion, the train- 
ing session should be terminated, and all members 
should be seated and belted in the approved riding posi- 
tions. There should be only one person at the tiller posi- 
tion. During the emergency response, the apparatus 
should be operated by a ciualified driver/operator. 

A.6.3.6 Helmets should be worn by all members in riding 
positions in an open cab that does not provide the protection 
of an enclosed cab. Helmets are also recommended for mem- 
bers riding in enclosed itreas where seats are not designed to 
provide head and neck protection in a collision. Properly de- 
signed seats, with head and neck protection, alleviate the need 
for helmets, and, in some cases, helmets would compromise 
the safety of the seats. 

A.6.3.7 Primary eye and/or face protection should be issued 
to members who might ride in either exposed positions in 
open cab apparatus or open tiller seats. Department standard 
operating procedures should outline the safety issues associ- 
ated with wearing eye protection while driving. 

A.6.3.8 Such alternate means of transportation could in- 
clude, but not be limited to, other fire apparatus, automobiles, 
and/or other personnel carriers. 

A.6.4.1 The purpose of this paragraph is to ensure that all 
vehicles are inspected on a regular basis and checked for the 
proper operation of all safety features. This inspection should 
include tires, brakes, warning lights and devices, headlights 
and clearance lights, windshield wipers, and mirrors. The ap- 
paratus should iDe started, and the operation of pumps and 
other equipment should be verified. Fluid levels should also 
be checked regularly. 

Where apparatus is in regular daily use, these checks 
should be performed on a daily basis. Apparatus stored in un- 
attended stations that might not be used for extended periods 
should be checked weekly. Any time such a vehicle is used, it 
should be checked before being placed back in sei-vice. The 
24-horu reference provides for situations in which a vehicle 
can be used within the period preceding a scheduled inspec- 
tion, although any deficiencies noted in use should be cor- 
rected without delay. 

The safety equipment carried on fire department vehicles 
should be inspected in cotijunction with the inspection of the 
vehicle. 



A.6.4.4 Applicable federal and state regulations, standards, 
or guidelines should be used as a basis for creating the list to 
evaluate whether or not a vehicle is safe. 

A.6.5.6 See A.6.4.1. 

A.7.1.1 The provision and use of protective clothing and pro- 
tective equipment should incltide safety shoes, gloves, goggles, 
safety glasses, and any other items appropriate to the mem- 
bers' activities. This applies to all activities members are ex- 
pected to perform, including non-emergency activities. The 
applicable regulations pertaining to industrial worker safety 
should be consulted to determine the need for protective 
equipment in non-emergency activities. 

A.7.1.2 The fire department should provide body armor for 
all members who operate in areas where a potential for vio- 
lence or civil unrest exists. 

A.7.1.3 Inspection of protective coats and protective trousers 
should be conducted on a frequent basis by members to en- 
sure the protective clothing's continued suitability for u.se. 
The fire department should inspect all protective clothing at 
least annually. The inspection shotild confirm the following: 

(1) All materials should be free from tears, embrittlement, 
and fraying. 

(2) Seams should be intact and show no signs of excessive 
wear. 

(3) Reflective trim should show no signs of abrasion or loss of 
reflectivity due to heat exposiue. 

(4) All pockets, knee pads, and other accessory items should 
be firmly attached to the garment and show no signs of 
excessive wear. 

(5) Sleeve and pant cuffs should show no signs of fraying. 

(6) The entire garment should be free from excessive dirt 
and stains. 

(7) Where a fabric color change is noted, a condition that 
could be caused by high heat exposure or ultraviolet ex- 
posure, the entire area should be checked for loss of tear 
strength. 

A.7.1.4 Protective clothing ensembles Cim be contaminated by 
bodily fluids or other contaminants encoun tered while providing 
medical care, or by smoke, soot, hydrocarbons, asbestos, chemi- 
cals, or other .substances encountered during fire-fighting and 
other operations. 

A.7.1.5 Station/work uniforms are required to meet the re- 
quirements of NFPA 1975. Because it is impossible to ensure 
that every member — whether a volunteer, call, or off-duty 
career member — will respond to an incident in a station/ 
work uniform or will change into station/work uniform cloth- 
ing before donning protective garments, it is verj' important 
that members understand the hazards of some fabrics that 
more easily melt, drip, burn, shrink, or transmit heat rapidly 
and cause burns to the wearer. Station/work uniforms are re- 
quired to meet the requirements of NFPA 1975. 

Clothing that is made from 100 percent natural fibers or 
blends that are principally natural fibers should be selected 
over other fabrics that have poor thermal stability or that ig- 
nite easily. 

The very fact that persons are frre fighters indicates that all 
clothing that they wear should be flame resistaru (as children's 
sleepwear is required to be) to give a degree of Sctfety if unantici- 
pated happenings occur that expose the clothing to flame, flash, 
sparks, or hot substances. 



2007 Edition 



1500-38 



¥IKE DEP/VRTMENT OCCUPATION/VL. SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



A.7.1.7 Protective clothing ensembles can be contaminated by 
bodily fluids or other contaminants encountered while providing 
medical care, or by smoke, soot, hydrocarbons, asbestos, chemi- 
cals, or other substances encountered during fire-Fighting and 
other operations. 

The fire department should establish procedures for clean- 
ing contaminated protective clothing (i.e., turnout gear) and 
stadon/work uniforms. This decontamination and cleaning 
can be done if the proper washers are available. 

Commercial washers are available for the fire service that 
allow the cleaning of fire department contaminated protective 
clothing and stadon/work uniforms and noncontaminated 
items such as bed linens, dish towels, and truck towels. 

The proper components of this process include a commer- 
cial washer that is front loading, has a stainless steel tub, has a 
water temperature greater than 130°F (54°C), and has a pro- 
grammed cycle to decontaminate the tub after the cleaning of 
contaminated protective clothing and station/work uniforms. 

Top-loading residential washers with enamel tubs do not 
meet the requirements, nor do commercial washers that the 
public has access to, such as those found in laundromats. If 
residential washers are going to be utilized for cleaning of 
station/work uniforms that are contaminated or potentially 
contaminated, separate washers must be utilized. Residential 
washers cannot be utilized for cleaning turnout gear. For 
proper procedures for cleaning protective clothing and 
station/work uniforms, refer to the manufacturers' instruc- 
tions, NFPAI851, and NFFA 1581. 

A.7.2.1 The fire department should consider providing each 
member with two complete sets of structural fire-fighting protec- 
tive clothing that meet the requirements of NFFA 1971 whenever 
possible. It is not reasonable to expect that a fire department 
would have enough stock protective clothing available to all 
members in the event that the protective clothing became soiled, 
wet, or contaminated during daily activities. Fire fighters pro- 
vided with two complete sets of structural fire-fighting protective 
clothing can change easily into proper-fitting garments and will 
not be unnecessarily exposed or expose the public to contami- 
nants. Structural protective clothing that is cleaned and properly 
and completely dried before the next use will last longer and 
provide greater protection tiian soiled ot damp gamients. 

A.7.2.2 Properly fitting protective clothing is important for the 
s;tfety of the fire tighter. It is important to understand that all 
protective clothing should be correctiy sized to allow for freedom 
of movement. Protective garments that are too small or too large 
and protective trouser legs that are too long or too shoit ;ire 
safety hazards and should be avoided. Protective coat sleeves 
should be of sufficient length and design to protect the coat/ 
glove interface area when reaching overhead or to the side. For 
proper fitting of a fire fighter, the protective clothing manufac- 
turer should be contacted to provide sizing instructions. 

A.7. 2.4.2 Some protective coats, particularly those certified 
as part of a protective ensemble with the CBRN option, may 
include different inteiface components instead of wristlets to 
provide increased integrity against penetration of CBRN ter- 
rorism agents. 

A.7.3.1 The technical committee's intent is that members uti- 
lize the appropriate protective clothing designed specifically 
for the type of fire-fighting activities for which the member is 
engaged. The type of fire-fighting activity is based upon the 



particular fire-fighting techniques used, such as using limited 
agents or chemicals, rather than the types of fuels involved. 

A.7.4 Fire department personnel invoh'ed in emergency 
medical operations should be protected against potential 
medical hazards. These hazards include exposure to blood or 
other body fluids contaminated with infectious agents such as 
hepatitis and human immunodeficiency viruses. The purpose 
of emergency medical protective clothing is to shield individu- 
als from these medical hazards and conversely to protect pa- 
tients from potential hazards from the emergency responder. 
Emergency medical gloves are to be used for all patient care. 
Emergency medical garments and face protection devices are 
to be used for any situation where the potential for contact 
with blood or other body fluids is high. 

NFPA 1999 covers garments, gloves, and face protection 
devices that are designed to prevent exposure to blood or 
other body fluids for those individuals engaged in emergency 
medical patient care and similar operations. NFPA 1999 speci- 
fies a series of requirements for each type of protective cloth- 
ing. Garments can be full-body clothing or clothing items such 
as coveralls, aprons, or sleeve protectors. For the intended ar- 
eas of body protection, the garment must allow no penetra- 
tion of virus, offer "liquidtight" integrity, and have limited 
physical durability and hazard resistance. Gloves must allow 
no penetration of virus, offer "liquidtight" integrity, and meet 
other requirements for tear resistance, puncture resistance, 
heat aging, alcohol resistance, sizing, and dexterity. Face pro- 
tection devices can be masks, hoods, visors, safety glasses, or 
goggles. Any combination of items can be used to provide pro- 
tection to the wearer's face, principally the eyes, nose, and 
mouth. For the intended areas of face protection, these de- 
vices must allow no penetration of virus, offer "liquidtight" 
integrity, and provide adequate visibility for those portions of 
the device covering the wearer's eyes. 

A.7.4.2 In order to avoid all potential exposure to infectious 
diseases, it is important that all members use medical gloves 
when providing patient care. All members who could come in 
contact with the patient should use medical gloves. 

A.7.4.3 For additional information refer to 29 CFR 191 0.134, 
Respiraloij pmleclion; OSHA Enforcement Policy and Proce- 
dures for Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis; and Center 
for Disease Control and Prevention, "Guidelines for Prevent- 
ing the Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Health- 
Care Facilities." 

A.7.5 See Annex F, Hazardous Materials PPE Information. 

A.7.5.1 NFPA 1991 covers vapor-protective ensembles that 
are designed to provide "gaslight" integrity and are intended 
for response situations where no chemical contact is permis- 
sible. This type of suit is equivalent to the clothing required in 
EPA's Level A. The standard specifies a battery of 25 chemicals 
and 2 chemical warfare agents, which were selected because 
they are representative of the classes of chemicals that are en- 
countered during hazardous materials emergencies and ter- 
rorism incidents involving chemical agents. Vapor-protective 
ensembles should resist permeation by the chemicals present 
during a response. Permeation is the movement of chemical 
through a material at a molecular level. The effects of perme- 
ation are often unobservable. Permeation resistance is mea- 
sured in terms of breakthrough time and permeation rate or 
the amount of cumulative permeation in the case of chemical 
warfare agents. An acceptable material is one where the break- 
through time exceeds the expected period of garment u.se and 



HFnr 



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1500-39 



the measured permeation rate is below the minimum perme- 
ation rate used for determining breakthrough time. Chemical 
permeation resistance for 1 hour or more against each chemi- 
cal in the NFPA 1991 battery is required for primary suit mate- 
rials (garment, visor, gloves, footwear, and seams) for testing 
of industrial chemicals. Acceptable performance of materials 
against chemical warfare agents is determined by measuring 
the amount of permeating chemical that passes through the 
material within 1 hour. This cumulative permeation is com- 
pared against acceptable dose levels that have been estab- 
lished for safe tise of protective clothing without effects to in- 
dividual wearers. To be certified for any additional chemicals 
or specific chemical mixtures, an ensemble must meet the 
same permeation performance reqtiirements. 

Other performance requirements are included in NFPA 1991 
in order to reflect simulated emergency hazardous materials re- 
sponse use conditions or conditions that might be encountered 
during a terrorism incident involving chemical agents, biological 
agents, or radiological particulates. To determine adeqtiate suit 
component performance in hazardous chemical environments, 
the following tests are required by NFPA 1991: 

(1) An ensemble pressiulzation test to check the airtight in- 
tegrity of each protective suit 

(2) An inward leakage test to demonstrate that the ensemble 
prevents the inward leakage of vapors or gases 

{?}) An overall suit water penetration test designed to ensure the 
suit provides full-body protection against liquid splashes 

(4) Penetration resistance testing of closures 

(5) Leak and cracking pressure tests for exhaust valves 

To ensure that the materials used for vapor-protective suits 
will afford adequate protection in the environment where 
they will be used, material testing for burst strength, tear resis- 
tance, abrasion resistance, flammability resistance, cold tem- 
perature performance, and flexural fatigue are also required. 
Additional optional criteria based on additional tests are pro- 
vided for demonstrating protection against liquefied gases or 
chemical flash fires. 

A.7.5.1.7 Materials used in vapor-protective ensembles are 
tested for limited thermal resistance; however, this testing only 
prevents the use of inherently flammable materials. There are 
no performance criteria provided in NFPA 1991 to demon- 
strate protection of NFPA 1991-compliantvapor-protective en- 
sembles during fire-fighting operations. There are no test re- 
cjuirements or performance criteria in NFPA 1991 addressing 
protection from ionizing radiation, ciyogenic liquid hazards, 
or explosive atmospheres. 

A.7.5.2 NFPA 1992 covers liquid splash-protective ensembles 
or clothing, which are designed to protect emergency re- 
sponders against liquid chemicals in the form of splashes, but 
not against continuous liquid contact or chemical vapors and 
gases. Liquid .splash-protective ensembles or clothing can be 
acceptable for .some chemicals that do not present vapor haz- 
ards. Essentially, this type of clothing meets EPA Level B needs. 
It is important to note, however, that wearing liquid splash- 
protective ensembles or clothing does not protect the wearer 
from exposure to chemical vapors and gases, since this cloth- 
ing does not offer gaslight performance, even if duct tape is 
used to seal clothing interfaces. Therefore, where the environ- 
ment is imknown or not quantified through monitoring, 
where exposures include carcinogens or skin-toxic chemicals 
involving chemicals with vapor pressures above 5 mm Hg at 



25°C (77°F), or where the splash-protective ensemble or cloth- 
ing has not been certified for the chemical expcjsure, an en- 
semble compliant with NFPA 1991 should be utilized. 

NFPA 1992 specifies a battery of seven chemicals including 
liquid chemicals with low vapor pressures with no known skin 
absorption toxicit)' or no known or suspected human carcinoge- 
nicity, that are representative of the classes of chemicals likely to 
be encountered during hazardous materials emergencies. 
Chemical-penetration resistiince against the NFPA 1992 battery 
of test chemicals is required. Any additional chemicals or specific 
chemical mixtures for which the manufacturer is certifying the 
suit should meet the same penetration performance require- 
ments. Additional optional criteria are provided for demonstrat- 
ing protection against chemical flash fires. 

Other NFPA 1992 performance requirements include an 
overall suit water-penetration test to ensure the suit provides 
integrity of the ensemble or clothing against the inward leak- 
age of liquids. The standard contains performance criteria to 
ensure that the materials used for liquid-splash suits afford 
adequate protection in the environment where they will be 
used. The test requirements include material testing for burst 
strength, tear resistance, flammabihty resistance, abrasion re- 
sistance, cold temperature performance, and flexural fatigue 
testing. 

A.7.5.2.8 There are no performance criteria provided in 
NFPA 1992 to demonstrate protection of NFPA 1992-compliant 
liquid splash-protective suits dtiring fire-fighting operations. 
There are no test requirements or performance criteria in 
NFPA 1992 addressing protection from ionizing radiation, bio- 
logical, liquefied gas, or cryogenic liquid hazards, from flam- 
mable or explosive atmospheres, or from hazardous chemical 
vapor atmospheres. 

A.7.5.3 CBRN protection is addressed in three standards, in- 
cluding NFPA 1991, NFPA 1994, and NFPA 1971. NFPA 1991 
provides requirements for the highest level of CBRN protec- 
tion, where hazards involving CBRN terrorism agents are most 
severe. These include the conditions where the agent has not 
been identified, the release is still occurring, and victims in the 
area of the release are apparently dead or unconscious. Test- 
ing of ensembles for NFPA 1991 requirements is described in 
A.7..5.1. 

NFPA 1 994 sets requirements for different classes of protec- 
tive ensembles for use at incidents involving CBRN terrorism 
agents as used by first responders. Class 2 ensembles provide 
the highest level of protection against CBRN terrorism agents, 
including vapors, liquids, and particulates, and have perfor- 
mance consistent with SCBAuse for IDLH conditions. Class 3 
ensembles also protect against CBIW^ terrorism agents that 
include vapors, liquids, or particulates, but are at conditions of 
exposure that are less than IDLH, which would permit the use 
of air-purifying respirators (APlis). 

There are two primary areas of evaluation: tests for integ- 
rity of the ensemble against the hazardous environment, and 
tests of the material to demonstrate how it acts as a barrier 
against different CBRN terrorism agents. There are three dif- 
ferent integrity tests. An inward leakage test is applied to 
Class 2 and Cla.ss 3 ensembles using the Man-in-Simulant test 
(MIST). This test measures the inward leakage of a surrogate 
agent into the clothing while worn by a test subject. The 
higher the MIST result or protection factor, the better the 
integrity. Class 2 performance has been set for levels that are 
consistent based on SCBA use while Class 3 performance is 



2007 Edition 



1500-40 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



consistent with APR use. MIST does not apply to Class 4 because 
these ensembles are not intended to pro\ide chemical protec- 
tion. Class 4 protective ensembles provide only biological or ra- 
diological particulate protection. A liquid integrity test is applied 
to each ensemble. Alonger test is used for Class 2 than for Class 3 
and Class 4. The liquid integrity test is applied to Class 4 because 
this clothing could be subjected to wet decontamination. For 
Class 4, a pardcle integrity test is used where a test subject wears 
the ensemble inside a closed environment with fluorescent par- 
ticles. Particle leakage is detected using ultrawolet light. This par- 
ticle test is not applied to Class 2 and Class 3 because it is believed 
that .successful MIST evaluations indicate pardcle holdout. For 
material tests, permeation testing as described in A.7.5.1 is used 
for Class 2 and Class 3 ensembles. For Class 2, permeation testing 
with gases is carried out at levels that are used for CBRN approv- 
als of APRs. The liquid chemical permeation tests for Class 2 are 
performed using the more rigorous closed-top procedures com- 
pared to open-top procedures for Class 3. All ensemble materials 
are evaluated for viral-penetration resistance using a bloodborne 
pathogen surrogate. 

The CBRN option for NFPA 1971 is based on Class 2 perfor- 
mance. The same integrity and material barrier reqtiirements 
are applied; however, ensemble elements and materials are 
.subjected to extensive conditioning involving laundering, 
heat exposures, repeated flexing, ancl abrasion prior to testing 
integrity and barrier characteristics. The tests are intended to 
simulate extensive use of the ensemble prior to encountering 
CBRN terrorism agents. (See also A. 7.5.3.6). 

A.7.5.3.2 Any response plan involving a biological or weapons 
of mass destruction (WMD) biological hazard should be based 
on relevant infectious disease or biological safety recommenda- 
tions by die Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 
and other expert bodies. 

A.7.5.3.6 The CBRN option for structural and proximity fire- 
fighting protective ensembles in NFPA 1971 can only be applied 
to complete ensembles of garments, helmet, gloves, footwear, 
and hood with a specified SCBA that has been certified by 
NIOSH as compliant with the NIOSH Standard fm- Chemical, Bio- 
logical, Hadiologiccd, and Nuclear (CBRN) Full Facepiece Air Pmifying 
Respiralor (APR). Non-CBRN elements cannot be used with the 
CBRN ensemble. CBRN ensembles are only intended to allow 
members escape and provide rescue during the escape when 
CBRN agents are encoimtered. 

A.7.7.1 Fire departments that provide both wildland and 
structural fire-fighting services should establish guidelines for 
members on which ensemble to wear for a given fire-fighting 
or other emergency incident. 

A.7.7.3 Fire shelters are no longer addressed in NFPA 1977. 
Specifications for fire shelters are provided in USDA Forest 
Service Specification 5100-606, Shelter Fire. 

A.7.8.3.1 NIOSH provides nine classes of particulate filters 
(three classes of filter efficiency — 95 percent, 99 percent, and 
99.97 percent), each with three categories of resistance to fil- 
ter efficiency degradation (N, R, and P) . Additionally, perfor- 
mance against toxic industrial gases, vapors, and certain 
CBRN agents are also specified by NIOSH. 

A.7.8.3.2 APRs and PAPRs do not supply oxygen. Use should 
be limited to known contaminants and known exposure levels 
and used only in adequately ventilated areas. APRs and PAPRs 
cannot be used when concentrations of contaminants are un- 
known, or when appropriate exposure limit is not known, or 
when cartridge or filter service life is unknown. 



A.7.9.1.1 Selection of respiratory protection devices is an im- 
portant function, particularly where resources are limited and 
respirators have to be used for different applications with dif- 
ferent equipment. Urban search and rescue (USAR), CBRN, 
confined space, hazardous materials, and other operations 
can require different filter elements, SCBA breathing air cylin- 
ders, umbifical connections, and features that are easier to 
ascertain and coordinate with a selection stage. 

A.7.9.4 At least one additional reserve SCBA should be avail- 
able at the incident scene for each 10 SCBA in use, to provide 
for replacement if a failure occurs. 

A.7.9.7 Hazardous atmospheres requiring SCBA can be found 
in, but are not limited to, the following operations: structural fire 
fighting, aircraft fire fighting, shipboard fire fighting, confined 
space rescue, and any incident involving hazardous materials. 

A.7.9.8 The required use of SCBA means that the user should 
have the facepiece in place, breathing air from the SCBA only. 
Wearing SCBA without the facepiece in place does not satisfy 
this requirement and should be permitted only under condi- 
tions in which the immediate safety of the atmosphere is as- 
sured. All members working in proximity to areas where SCBA 
use is required should have SCBA on their backs or immedi- 
ately available for donning. Areas where the atmosphere can 
rapidly become hazardous could include rooftop areas during 
ventilation operations and areas where an explosion or con- 
tainer rupture could be anticipated. 

A hazardous atmosphere would be suspected in overhaul 
areas and above the fire floor in a building. Members working 
in these areas are required to use their SCBA unless the safety 
of the atmosphere is established by testing and maintained by 
effective ventilation. With eftxjctive ventilation in operation, 
facepieces could be removed under direct supervision, but 
SCBA .should continue to be worn or immediately available. 

A.7.11.1.2 Manufacturers of fire service SCBA that are NIOSH- 
certified and that also meet requirements of NFPA 1981 provide 
SCBA with a reasonable level of dependability, if correctly used 
and maintained. In those cases where there is a reported failure 
of SCBA, a before-use check, a more thorough user inspection 
program, or a preventive maintenance program most likely 
would have eliminated the failure. 

Fire fighters should be thoroughly trained in emergency 
procedures that can reverse problems encountered with their 
SCBA. Use of the regulator bypass valve, corrective action for 
facepiece and breathing tube damage, and breathing direcdy 
from the regulator (where applicable) are basic emergency 
procedures that should be taught to and practiced by the indi- 
vidual user. Fundamental to all emergency procedure training 
is the principle of not compromising the integrity of the user's 
SCBA, with particular emphasis on not removing the face- 
piece for any reason. The danger of compromising the integ- 
rity of the SCBA by removing the facepiece in atmospheres 
where the quality of air is unknown should be reinforced 
throughout the SCBA training program. 

It is natural that this same philosophy be adopted when 
deahng with the subject of "buddy breathing." The buddy 
breathing addressed herein is a procedure that requires com- 
promising the rescuer's SCBA by either removal of the face- 
piece or disconnection of the breathing tube, as these actions 
place the rescuer in grave danger. 

The subject of buddy breathing is always a highly emotional 
one. Training .should stress that fire fighters should not re- 
move the facepiece of the SCBA in a hazardous atmosphere to 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-41 



assist a civilian fire victim, thereby exposing themselves to 
the toxic atmosphere, but instead rely on the rapid removal 
of the victim to a safe atmosphere or to a place of refuge 
where the rescuer can obtain further assistance in removing 
the victim to fresh air and treatment. However, when a fire 
fighter becomes the victim due to exhaustion of the breath- 
ing air supply or other impairment, some fire departments 
or fire service personnel insist upon engaging in proce- 
dures that are extremely difficult at best, even with consis- 
tent training in relatively ideal conditions. Virtually all 
buddy breathing procedures require compromising the res- 
cuer's SCBA and, for this reason, cannot be condoned. 
Positive-pressure SCBA has made certain methods of buddy 
breathing more complicated, if not impossible. 

A key disadvantage in buddy breathing is that it is ex- 
tremely difficult for two people to leave the hazardous atmo- 
sphere quickly while engaged in buddy breathing, simulta- 
neously consuming air at a faster rate. The risk that both 
individuals will inhale sufficient products of combusfion to 
cause impairment or death is a very distinct possibility. 

It is difficult to vmderstiind why buddy breathing advocates 
believe that an atmosphere that is deadly for one fire fighter 
and causes that fire fighter to become a victim can safely be 
breathed by another fire fighter (the would-be rescuer) while 
using a buddy breathing procedure. 

A scenario involving two fire fighters working at a ware- 
house fire provides a graphic example of how buddy breath- 
ing can be more hazardous than beneficial to both the rescuer 
and the victim. Wliile working in an interior operation at a 
warehouse fire, one fire fighter suffered depletion of his 
breathing air supply. The other fire fighter commenced buddy 
breathing while both attempted to move out of the building. 
Unable to make sufficient progress as the first fire fighter was 
being overcome, the rescuer left the victim and attempted to 
leave the area for help. But because the resetter had inhaled 
sufficient products of combustion during the attempted 
buddy breathing operation, he collapsed before he cotild exit 
the building. He was r&scued by other fire fighters and re- 
moved to a hospital before he could relate the circumstances 
regarding the first fire fighter. The first fire fighter was found 
dead some time later. 

If the fire fighter had been trained to remove the victim 
completely from the btiilding or from immediate physical 
danger if possible, a number of things would have been ac- 
complished without endangering the rescuer's life and with 
less risk to the victim fire fighter. If the rescuer had not com- 
promised his SCBA, he would not have been affected by the 
products of combustion, he would have retained a greater air 
supply, and he would have either removed the victim fire 
fighter by himself or exited the area for additional assistance 
and alerted medical help. 

The risk of both victim and rescuer exhausting their air 
supplies is another scenario associated with buddy breathing. 
In this case, what starts out as a rescuer-victim relationship 
ends up a victim-victim relationship, as the shared air supply is 
exhausted before exiting is pcssible. 

The one scenario that does not allow exiting is that in 
which two or more persons are trapped and share air supplies 
by buddy breathing. In this case, survival is based upon the 
time it takes those outside to realize that persons are trapped, 
initiate rescue operations, and accomplish rescue. Unfortu- 
nately buddy breathing might only provide a simultaneous 
ending of multiple lives. 

SCBA emergency procedures should be an integral part of 
any respiratory protection SCBA program, with written policies 



for the removal of victims, both civilian and fire service, from 
hazardous atmospheres without compromising the rescuer's res- 
piratory protection SCBA for any reason. 

Factors that can hmit the need for buddy breathing include 
the following: 

(1) A strong, well-administered respiratory protection SCBA 
program 

(2) Emphasis on user testing and inspection of respiratory 
protection SCBA 

(3) Required before-use and after-use testing and maintenance 

(4) Functional preventive maintenance program 

(5) Fireground management based upon safe operations 
with knowledge of fire development, building construc- 
tion, and coordinated fire-fighting operations 

(6) Air management training based upon the t)'pe of structtire 
the user is entering, which requires the user to be aware of 
the distance to exit the structure when the low-air alarm 
activates or when necessary to leave the stmcture 

(7) Quality breathing air 

(8) Personal alert safety system (PASS) devices and portable 
radios for interior fire-fighting teams 

(9) Thorough training in survival techniques, controlled 
breathing, and stress management 

(10) Accountability for interior fire-fighting crews 

(11) Physical fitness of fire fighters 

(12) Use of positive-pressure SCBA that are NIOSH-approved 
and that meet the requirements of NFPA 1981 

NFPA, ANSI, lAFF, and most SCBA manufacturers do not 
recommend buddy breathing because it compromises one or 
more SCBA and can icsult in the needless impairment or 
death of either the rescuer or the victim, or both. 

A.7.11.1.3 The use of long-duration SCBA should be re- 
stricted to operations in tunnels and underground structures, 
on board ships, and in other situations where the need for this 
capability is demonstrated. Weight and stress reduction should 
be an objective in the acquisition of new SCBA and when upgrad- 
ing currently used SCBA. Weight and other stress factors are ma- 
jor contributions to fire fighter fatigxie and injury, and SCBA 
should be chosen accordingly. 

A.7.11.3.3 Because of the cumulative hazards associated with 
the repeated use of filter canisters and cartridges under emer- 
gency response conditions, canisters and cartridges that have 
been placed in service should be removed, replaced, and dis- 
carded after training, regardless of exposure time. 

A.7.12.1 Proper respiratoiy protection programs include 
provisions for conducting a respirator fit testing to ensure that 
the respirator fits the user properly. APRs reduce the user's 
exposure by vaiying degrees, depending on the type of respi- 
rator used and assuming the respirator user has been properly 
fit tested following procedures set forth in 29 CFR 1910.134, 
Respiratory protection, and ANSI Z88.2, Practices for Respiratoiy 
Protection. An effective face-to-facepiece seal is extremely im- 
portant when using respiratoiy protection SCBA. Even a mi- 
nor leakage can allow contaminants to enter the facepiece, 
even with positive-pressure respiratory protection SCBA. Any 
outward leakage will increase the rate of air consumption, re- 
ducing the time available for use and safe exit. The facepiece 
should .seal tightly against the skin, without penetration or in- 
terference by any protective clothing or other equipment. In 
those instances where members cannot meet the facepiece 



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FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



seal requirement with equipment currently used by the AHJ, 
individually fitted facepieces should be provided. 

Fit testing is a procedure used to evaluate how well a given 
respirator fits a given person by assessing leakage around the 
face seal. Without fit testing, persons unknowingly can have 
poor face seals, allowing contaminants to leak around the 
mask and be inhaled. Poor face seals are due to certain facial 
characteristics (facial size, beards, large sideburns, scars, or 
other facial uniqueness) that prevent direct contact between 
the skin and the sealing surface of the respirator and result in 
leakage or inadequate respiratory protection. 

Improper use of a respirator or improper fit testing of any 
respirator can lead to a false sense of security and possibly 
result in injury or death to the user. 

A.7.12.4 In quantitative fit testing, the testing machine pro- 
vides a numerical value of each test exercise and then a com- 
puted fit factor that can be used as a benchmark for future fit 
testing the following year. The test subject must obtain at least 
a fit factor of 500 for the person to pass the fit test with the full 
facepiece. The strip chart that the test machine provides be- 
comes the written record, and a computer-generated record 
can be done at the same time. There is littie judgment re- 
quired by the operator of the fit test other than to make sure 
the test subject and the procedures are followed to the letter. 

A.7.12.6 A protection factor of at least 10,000 in the positive- 
pressure mode is recommended for positive-pressure SCBA. 
The quantitative test can be used to determine which face- 
pieces fit an individual well and thus aids in selecting the face- 
piece that best consen'es the amount of air in the cylinder. 

If a satisfactoiy fit catinot be achieved for an individual with 
one make of facepiece, another make of the device should be 
bought for that member. 

WARNING: If a facepiece from one manufacturer is used 
on a unit from another manufacturer, the NIOSH approval 
will be voided. 

A.7.13.3 The following is an excerpt from 29 CFR 1910.134(g): 
"(g) Use of respirators. This paragraph requires employers to 
establish and implement procedures for the proper use of res- 
pirators. These requirements include prohibiting conditions 
that may result hi facepiece seal leakage, preventing employ- 
ees from removing respirators in hazardous environments, 
taking actions to ensure continued effective respirator opera- 
tion throughout the work shift, and establishing procedures 
for the use of respirators in IDLH atmospheres or in interior 
structural firefighting situations. 

(1) Facepiece seal protecticm. (i) The employer shall not permit 
respirators with tight-fitting facepieces to be worn by em- 
ployees who have: 

(A) Facial hair that comes between the sealing surface of 
the facepiece and the face or that interferes with valve func- 
tion; or 

(B) Any condition that interferes with the face-to-facepiece 
seal or valve function." 

This prohibition applies to any negative- or positive-pressure 
personal respiratoiy protection device of a design relying on the 
principle of forming a face seal to perform at maximum effective- 
ness. A beard growing on the face at points where the seal with 
the respirator is to occur is a condition that has been shown to 
prevent a good face seal. This is so regardless of w^hat fit test mea- 
surement can be obtained. However, if the beard is st>'led so no 
hair underlies the points where the SCBA facepiece is designed 



to seal with the face, then the employer may use the SCBA to 
protect the employee. 

A.7.13.6 The user should be able to demonstrate the succes.s- 
ful use of an SCBA with contact lenses in a nonhazardous 
training environment before being allowed to use them in an 
incident. Successful long-term soft contact lens use should be 
measured by the ability to wear soft contact lenses for at least 
6 months without any problems. 

A.7.14.1 Given the considerable amount of stored energy in- 
side an SCBA cylinder, cylinders should always be filled using 
manufacturers' recommendations and following any existing 
NIOSH, CGA, or other regulatory agency guidelines. 

Because of the failure during refilling of 11 cyUnders using 
aluminum alloy 6351-T6, SCBA cylinders made of this alloy 
should be dihgently inspected, both externally and internally, 
by properly trained inspectors at least annually 

Most of these failed cylinders had not been maintained 
properly. Some were being used beyond their DOT-defined 
hydrostatic test period. Some had not been retrofitted with a 
special neck-ring that the manufacturer had recommended to 
reduce the possibility of failure. 

For additional information, refer to the United States De- 
partment of Transportation (DOT) Research and Special Pro- 
grams Administration (RSPA) Safety Advisory Notice of 1994 
(Federal Register Vol. 59, July 26, 1994), DOT Safety Advisory 
Notice of 1999 (Federal Register Vol. 64, October 18, 1999), 
and the NIOSH Respirator User Notice of December 7, 1999. 

Several of the ruptured cylinders were made using ;tluminum 
alloy 6351-T6. This alloy has been identified ;is being susceptible 
to sustained load cracking (SLC) in the neck and shoulder area 
of the cylinder. The NIOSH Respirator User Notice of December 
7, 1999, states: "It is important to note that only a small percent- 
age of cylinders made from aluminum alloy 6351-T6 have actu- 
ally been found to exhibit sustained load cracking. Moreover, out 
of several million cylinders manufacttired fi-om this alloy by sev- 
eral compimies, NIOSH and die U.S. Department of Transportit- 
tion (DOT) are aware of only 12 ruptures within the United 
States. Eleven of the 12 ruptures occurred during refilling, six of 
these 12 ruptures involved SCBA cylinders. Forensic analysis has 
detennined that most of these cylinders failed due to SLC failure. 
However, in some cases, evidence of other factors such as exter- 
nal mechanical damage was also present." 

Changes have now been made in materials specification 
and design of cylinders. Since 1988, manufacturers have been 
using aluminum alloy 6061-T6 in the manufacture of all of 
their cylinders and cylinder liners. Alloy 6061-T6 has become 
the "standard of the industry" because it is not susceptible to 
sustained load cracking. 

The failed cylinders belong to a relatively small population 
of a particular type of cylinder, and there has been no occur- 
rence of cylinder failure during filling of any other type of 
SCBA cyhnders. Full-wrapped composite cylinders, which are 
predominantly being purchased by the fire .senice at this time, 
have been tised since 1988 without failure during refilling. 
There is, therefore, reason to believe that these other types of 
SCBA cyhnders can continue to be used in the fire service 
without risk of failure during filling. 

A.7.14.5 To facilitate this, it is recommended that industry 
develop an inexpensive, lightweight chamber, or other means, 
to provide protection at the fire scene during routine cylinder 
filling. There is no current commonly accepted standard or 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-43 



specifications for protective enclosures in which to fill SCBA 
cylinders. Until such a standard is defined, such equipment 
should comply with the standards defined for fragmentation 
tanks in NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. 

A number of SCBA manufacturers have developed systems 
to quickly fill cylinders. They enable cylinders to be filled while 
the user is wearing the SCBA. Even though some of these sys- 
tems have been in use without incident for many years, it is felt 
that fire fighter and support personnel safety are paramount. 
This standard therefore recommends that personnel be pro- 
tected when routinely refilling SCBA cylinders. 

Until a commonly accepted standard for providing protec- 
tion during routine refilling of cylinders is defined, the AHJ 
should determine how best to provide protection for its per- 
sonnel during roufine cylinder filling. 

Without a commonly accepted standard defining a concise 
method of protecting personnel during cylinder refilhng, the 
AHJ can choose which method best applies to its personnel. 
Such protection can consist of refilhng cylinders in an enclo- 
sure considered acceptable to the AHJ. The protection can 
consist of using a refill system with a safe record of operation, 
with no experience of failures or damage to cylinders, sup- 
ported by sufficient data, or it can consist of an alternate prac- 
tice considered as safe by the AHJ. 

A.7.14.6 The possibility exists for catastrophic failure of 
SCBA cylinders during refilling. 

A.7.15.1 Technology has provided the integration of PASS 
devices with SCBA. When the SCBA unit is activated to an 
operational mode, the PASS device is activated. Fire depart- 
ments are encouraged to utilize this technology. The use of 
PASS devices .should be coupled with a solid incident manage- 
ment system, a personnel accountability system, and adequate 
communications to properly ensure the safety of fire fighters. 

A.7.15.2 The mandatory use and operation of a PASS by fire 
fighters involved in rescue, fire suppression, or other hazard- 
ous duty is imperative for their safety. The primary intent of 
this device is to serve as an audible device to warn fellow fire 
fighters in the event a fire tighter becomes incapacitated or 
needs assistance. 

Past fire fighter fatality investigation reports document the 
critical need to wear and operate PASS devices when fire fight- 
ers operate in hazardous areas. Investigation results show that 
fire fighters most often failed to activate the PASS imit prior to 
entering a hazardous area. Training and operational proce- 
dures are imperative to ensure activation of the PASS when- 
ever PASS devices are used. 

A.7.16.3 Life safety rope can be significantly weakened by abra- 
sion, misuse, contamination, wear, and stresses approaching its 
breaking strength, particularly impact loading. Because there is 
no approved method to service test a rcjpe without compromis- 
ing its strength, rope rescue and training operations should be 
carefully obseived and monitored for conditions that could 
cause immediate failure or result in undetectable damage to the 
rope. If a rope has been tised in a situation that could not be 
supenised or where potential damage could have occurred, it 
should be removed from service and destroyed. 

It is importimt that ropes be inspected for signs of wear by 
qualified individuals after each u,se. If indications of wear or 
damage are noted, or if the rope has been stressed in excess of 
the manufacturers' recommendations or has been impact 
loaded, it should be destroyed. 

The destruction of the rope means that it should be re- 
moved from semce and altered in .such a manner that it could 



not be mistakenly used as a life safety rope. This alteration 
could include disposal or removal of identifying labels and 
attachments and cutting the rope into short lengths that could 
be used for utility purposes. 

The assignment of disposable life .safety ropes to members 
or to vehicles has proven to be an effective system to manage 
ropes that are provided for emergency use and are used infre- 
quently. Special rescue teams, which train frequently and use 
large quantities of rope, should include members who are 
qualified to manage and evaluate the condition of their ropes 
and determine the Umitations upon their reuse. 

A.7.17.1.1 Some examples of primary eye protection are 
goggles and safety glasses, as they provide specific and substan- 
tial eye protection against penetration and impact. Helmet 
faceshields are not primary eye protection, as they do not pro- 
vide eye protection and should not be relied upon for eye 
protection. Faceshields should be used to protect the face as 
secondary protection to primary eye protection. Faceshields 
currently are often used incorrectly as the only form of eye 
protection. It is evident that when faceshields are exposed to 
ultraviolet degradation, abrasion, and products of combus- 
tion, they become .scratched, cloudy, opaque, and can be ren- 
dered unsei-viceable in a very short period of time. In many 
instances, the faceshield is lifted so that the wearer can see 
what he is doing, leaving the eyes unprotected and exposed to 
the dangers of flying debris. Goggles and other primary eye 
devices are more easily protected from damage and also pro- 
vide specific protection for the wearer's eyes. There are nu- 
merous products on the market to protect the goggles from 
damage when stored on the helmet. Users desiring to keep 
goggles or eye protection stored on top of the helmets should 
consider one of these devices. The SCBA facepiece can pro- 
vide both primary eye protection and full-face protection. 

A.7.18.1 The use of PPE to limit noise exposure should be 
considered as an interim approach until the nofse levels pro- 
duced by vehicles, warning devices, and radios can be re- 
duced. Protective ear muffs are recommended for fire fighters 
due to the difficulties of proper fit and insertion of ear plugs. 
Studies in some jurisdictions have indicated that the most 
harmful noise exposure can come from radios that are turned 
up loud enough to be heard over the noise of engines and 
warning devices. Ear muffs are available that provide effective 
sound attenuation and rapid donning. They should also be 
provided with built-in speakers and volume controls for radio 
and intercom communications. Ear muffs should be worn by 
operators of noisy equipment (in excess of 90 dBA) at the 
scene of incidents as well as during response. In some jurisdic- 
tions, traffic regulations could limit the use of hearing protec- 
tion by drivers. 

The fire apparatus standards reqirire the noise level at any 
seated position to be a maximum of 90 dBA when measured as 
specified in the standard, without any warning devices in opera- 
tion, as the vehicle proceeds at a speed of 45 mph (72 km/h) on 
a level, hard, smooth surface road. However, it is recommended 
that the specifications for new fire apparatus provide maximum 
sound requirements that would allow members to ride in those 
vehicles without using hearing-protective devices. A maximum 
limit of 85 dBA without audible warning de\ices and 90 dBAwtir 
warning devices in operation is recommended. Interior noise lev- 
els should be measured with the vehicle in motion at the speed 
that produces the highest noise level, up to 55 mph (80 km/h). 
All windows should be closed, and the noise level should be mea- 
sured in each passenger area. 



2007 Edition JiS 



1500-44 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY .AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



A.7.18.2 When operating in situations where other protective 
clothing and equipment are necessary, such as in structural fire 
fighting, the interface between hearing protection and other 
necessary protection might not be adequately addressed by cur- 
rently used devices. For example, ear muffs might not interface 
with helmets, and foam plastic ear plugs could be dangerous in a 
fire environment due to the potential for melting. In addition, a 
reduction in hearing capability in an emergency operations set- 
ting could create additional hazards. Effective hearing protection 
should also be used during non-emergency activities such as 
equipment checks and engine warm-ups. Attention should be 
given to conecting the deficiencies through the advent of im- 
proved protective devices and through the use of alternate or 
improved procedures that create less noise. 

A.7.18.3 An effective hearing conservation program should 
address the regular audiometric testing of members to iden- 
tify hearing lo.ss, the development and implementation of 
steps to prevent further hearing loss by members exhibiting 
such loss, and the ongoing identification and reduction or 
elimination of potentially harmful noise sources in the work 
environment. The standards for hearing conservation in- 
cluded in 29 CFR 1910.95, Occupational noise exposure, should 
be used as a basic minimum approach to this problem. 

Any approach to hearing conservation should address per- 
sonal protective devices, audiometric testing, and the reduc- 
tion of noise exposure that can be achieved by modifying ex- 
isting equipment or changing procedures. Examples of 
modifications would include moving siren speakers and air 
horns down onto front bumpers, responding with windows 
closed, and installing soimd-attentiating insulation in cabs of 
fire appar-atus. The noise produced by audible warning de- 
vices should also be evaluated to determine the most effective 
balance between warning value and harmful characteristics. 
Some studies indicate that high-low alternating-tone sirens 
and lower-pitch air horns could be more effective warning de- 
vices and less damaging to hearing. 

A long-term approach to hearing conservation should deal 
with the purchase of apparatus and equipment that is less 
noisy by design, with noise standards included in the specifica- 
tions. Improved radio equipment that produces higher clarity 
of sound with less output volume should also be considered. 

Eor more information on fire department hearing conserva- 
tion programs, consult the U.S. Fire Administration publication 
FA-118, Fire and Emergeniy Service Hearing Conservation Program 
Manual 

A.8. 1 .1 For incidents involving wildland fires, see Annex E for 
additional safety guidelines. 

A.8.1.5 The incident commander should automatically inte- 
grate fire fighter safety and survival into the regular command 
functions. When this integration occurs, the incident com- 
mander promotes fire fighter welfare by performing the stan- 
dard job of command. Under fire conditions, the incident 
commander is at an extreme disadvantage to perform any ad- 
ditional tasks. The safety plan for the incident commander has 
to be the regular command plan. 

Due to the high number of fire fighter injuries and deaths 
attributable to lack of or poor implementation of the safety 
function on the incident scene, the incident commander 
should recognize the importance of integrating the safety 
function into the incident command structure as described in 
NFFA1561. 



A.8.1.7 Due to the high number of fire fighter injuries and 
deaths attributable to lack of or poor implementation of inci- 
dent management, incident managers should be familiar with 
the use of incident management teams or incident command 
team as described in NFPA 1561. 

A.8.1.8 The following explains the responsibihties of the in- 
cident commander: 

(1) The incident commander should always integrate fire 
fighter health and safety considerations into the com- 
mand proce.ss. This integration ensures that safety will al- 
ways be considered and will not be reserved for unusual or 
high-risk situations when the incident commander is un- 
der a high degree of stress. An incident action plan that 
addresses fire fighter safety should be a routine function 
of command. 

(2) Early evaluation enables the incident commander to con- 
sider current conditions in a sUindard manner and then 
predict the .sequence of events that will follow. The con- 
sideration of fire fighter safety should be incorporated 
into this evaluation and forecasting. 

(3) Effective communications are essential to ensure that the 
incident commander is able to receive and transmit infor- 
mation, obtain reports to maintain an awareness of the 
situation, and communicate with all component parts of 
the incident organization to provide effective .supervision 
and controls. 

(4) Strategic decisions establish the basic positioning of re- 
sources and the t)pes of functions they will be assigned to 
perform at the scene of a fire or emergency incident. The 
level of risk to which members are exposed is driven by the 
strategy; offensive strategy places members in interior posi- 
tions where they are likely to have direct contact with the 
fire, while defensive strategy removes members from inte- 
rior positions and high-risk activities. The attack plan is 
based on the overall strategy and drives the tactical assign- 
ments that are given to individual or groups of companies/ 
crews and die specific functions they are expected to per- 
form. Risk identification, evaluation, and management 
concepts should be incorporated into each stage of the com- 
mand process. 

(5) Tactical level management component people are com- 
mand agents and are able to both monitor companies/ 
crews at the actual location where the work is being 
done (geographic) and to provide the necessary sup- 
port (functional). The incident commander uses a 
tactical-level management unit as off-site (from the 
command post) operational/communications/safety 
managers-supei"visors. The incident commander uses 
the incident organization along with communications 
to stay connected. Some incident management systems 
identify tactical-level management components such as 
a division or a group for a functional position within the 
system, whereas other systems use the term sectors for 
either geographical or functional areas. As incidents 
escalate, the incident management system should be 
utilized to maintain an effective span of control ratio of 
not greater than 1 to 7 with an optimum ratio of 1 to 5. 

(6) The incident commander should rcjutinely evaluate and 
re-evaluate conditions and reports of progress or lack of 
progress in reaching objectives. This process will allow the 
incident commander to determine if the strategy and at- 
tack plans should be continued or revi.sed. The failure to 
revise an inappropriate or outdated attack plan is likely tci 
result in an elevated risk of death or injury to fire fighters. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-45 



(7) Efl'ective command and control should be maintained 
from the beginning to the end of operations, particularly 
if command is transferred. Any lapse in the continuity of 
command and the transfer of information increases the 
risk to fire fighters. 

A.8.2.2 The intent of the use of "clear text" for radio commu- 
nications is to reduce confusion at incidents, particularly 
where iriultiple agencies are operating at the .same incident. 

A.8.2.3 Examples of emergency conditions could be "fire 
fighter down," "fire fighter missing," "fire fighter trapped," 
"officer needs assistance," "evacuate the building/ area," "wind 
shift from the north to south," "change from offensive to de- 
fensive operations," "fire fighter trapped on the first floor." 

The term mayday should not be used for fireground com- 
munications in that it could cause confusion with the term 
used for aeronautical and nautical emergencies. 

In addition to the "emergency traffic," the fire department 
can use additional signals such as an air horn signal for mem- 
bers to evacuate as part of their standard operating proce- 
dures. Some fire departments have developed an evacuation 
signal that consists of repeated short blasts of apparatus air 
horns. The sequence of air horn blasts should not exceed 
10 seconds in length, followed by a 10-second period of si- 
lence, and it is done three times (total air horn evacuation 
signal including periods of silence lasts 50 seconds). When 
this evacuation signal is used, the incident commander should 
designate specific apparatus to sound the evacuation signal 
using air horns. The apparatus used should not be in close 
proximity to the command post, if possible, thus reducing the 
chance of missing any radio messages. 

During fire fighter rescue operations, the incident com- 
mander should consider implementing the following; 

( 1 ) Recjuesting additional resources 

(2) Including a medical component 
(S) Utilizing staging for resources 

(4) Committing the RIC team from standby mode to deploy- 
ment 

(5) Changing from strategic plan to a high-priority rescue 
operation 

(6) Initiating a PAR (personnel accountability report) 

(7) Withdrawing companies from the affected area 

(8) Assigning a rescue officer 

(9) Assigning a safety officer 

(10) A.ssigning a backup rapid intervention crew/company 

(11) Assigning an advanced hfe support (ALS) or basic life 
support (BLS) company 

(12) Requesting additional command level officers 

(13) Requesting specialized equipment 

(14) Ensuring that dispatch is monitoring all radio channels 

(15) Opening appropriate doore to facilitate egress and access 

(16) Requesting additional vertical/horizontal ventilation 

(17) Providing lighting at doorways, especially at points of entry 

A.8.2.4 Some fire departments can also wish to be provided 
with reports of elapsed time-from-dispatch. This method can 
be more appropriate for fire departments with long travel 
times where significant incident progress could have occurred 
prior to the first unit arrival. 

A.8.2.4. 1 Common procedure is for the dispatch center to 
announce "incident clock is 10 minutes," "incident clock is 
20 minutes," "incident clock is 30 minutes," and so forth. 



A.8.3.1 The incident commander has the ultimate responsi- 
bility for the safety of all fire department members operating 
at an incident and for any and all other persons whose safety is 
affected by fire department operations. Risk management pro- 
vides a basis for the following: 

(1 ) Standard evaluation of the situation 

(2) Strategic decision making 

(3) Tactical planning 

(4) Plan evaluation and revision 

(5) Operational command and control 

A.8.3.2 The risk to fire department members is the most im- 
portant factor considered by the incident commander in de- 
termining the strategy that will be employed in each situation. 
The management of risk levels involves all of the following 
factors: 

(1) Routine evaluation of risk in all situations 

(2) Well-defined strategic options 

(3) Standard operating procedures 

(4) Effective training 

(5) Full protective clothing ensemble and equipment 

(6) Effective incident management and communications 

(7) Safety procedures and safety officers 

(8) Backup crews for rapid intervention 

(9) Adequate resources 

(10) Rest and rehabilitation 

(11) Regular evaluation of changing conditions 

(12) Experience based on previous incidents and critiques 

When considering risk managenient, fire departments 
should consider the following Rules of Engagement after 
evaluating the survival profile of any victims in the involved 
compartment: 

(1) We will risk our lives a lot, in a calculated manner, to save 
SAVABLE LIVES. 

(2) We will risk our lives a LITTLE, in a calculated manner, to 
save SAVABLE property. 

(3) We WTLL NOT risk our lives at all for a building or lives 
that are already lost. 

A.8.3.3 The acceptable level of risk is directly related to the 
potential to save lives or property. Where there is no potential 
to save lives, the risk to fire department members should be 
evaluated in proportion to the ability to save property of value. 
When there is no ability to save lives or property, there is no 
justification to expose fire department members to any avoid- 
able risk, and defensive fire suppression operations are the 
appropriate strategy. 

A.8.3.5 An incident safety officer should be established at all 
major incidents and at any high-risk incidents. The incident 
safety officer should be assigned to operate under the incident 
commander. Depending on the specific situation, this assign- 
ment could require one or more members. If the fire depart- 
ment's safety officer is not available or does not have the ex- 
pertise necessary for the incident, the incident commander 
should assign one or more members that have the expertise to 
assume this responsibility. All members should be familiar 
with the basic duties and responsibilities of an incident safety 
officer. 

A.8.3.7 Atropine auto-injectors are used in the military and 
have been purchased by many fire departments. Fire depart- 
ments that have auto-injectors available for their members 
need to provide training on the use of the auto-injector. 



2007 Edition Bh 



1500-46 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETVAND HEALTH PROGl^M 



A.8.4.1 A standard system to account for the identity and as- 
signment of each member could be relatively simple when all 
members arrive as assigned crews on fire apparatus/The iden- 
tity of each crew member should at least be recorded in a 
standard manner on the vehicle, and each company officer is 
responsible for those members. In fire departments where 
members arrive in their own vehicles or assemble at the scene, 
a system is required to record the identity of each member 
arriving and to organize them into companies or groups with 
appropriate supervision. This requires a standard system of 
"reporting in" at the incident and becoming part of the orga- 
nized system of operations. 

A.8.4.10 The personnel accountability system is a method of 
maintaining constant awareness of the idendties and location 
of all personnel involved in emergency operations. The per- 
sonnel accountability system philosophy starts with the inci- 
dent command system principles of company unity and unity 
of command. These dudes can be fulfilled initially maintain- 
ing company accountability by documenting the situation sta- 
tus and resource status on the tactical worksheet. Other meth- 
ods include command boards, apparatus riding lists, company 
personnel boards, and electronic bar-coding systems. These 
components can be used in conjunction with one another to 
facilitjue the tracking of personnel by both location and func- 
tion. The components of the personnel accountability system 
should be modular and expand with the size and complexity 
of the incident. 

At major incidents, this function should be separate from 
the role of the incident commander, The function of person- 
nel accountability should be assigned to an accountability of- 
ficer (resource status and situation status) who is responsible 
for maintaining the status of all assigned resources at an inci- 
dent. As the incident escalates, this function would be placed 
under the planning section. 

A.8.4.11 These accountiibility supervisors should work with the 
incident commander and tactical-level management component 
supervisor to assist in the ongoing tracking and accountability of 
members. 

A.8,5.1.1 The limitation of emergency scene operations to 
those that can be safely conducted by the number of person- 
nel on the scene is intended to reduce the risk of fire fighter 
death or injury due to understaffing. While members can be 
assigned and arrive at the scene of an incident in many differ- 
ent ways, it is strongly recommended that interior fire-fighting 
operations not be conducted without an adequate number of 
qualified fire fighters operating in companies under the su- 
pervision of company officers. 

It is recommended that a minimum acceptable fire com- 
pany staffing level should be four members responding on or 
arriving with each engine and each ladder company respond- 
ing to any type of fire. The minimum acceptable staffing level 
for companies responding in high-risk areas should be five 
members responding or arriwng with each engine company 
and six members responding or arriving with each ladder 
company These recommendations are based on experience 
derived from actual fires and in-depth tire simulations and are 
the result of critical and objective evaluation of fire company 
effectiveness. These studies indicate significant reductions in 
performance and safety where crews have fewer members 
than the above recommendations. Overall, five member crews 
were found to provide a more coordinated approach for 
search and rescue and fire-suppression tasks. 



During actual emergencies, the effectiveness of compa- 
nies can become critical to the safety and health of fire 
fighters. Potentially fatal work environments can be created 
very rapidly in many fire situations. The training and skills 
of companies can make a difference in the need for addi- 
tional personnel and in reducing the exposure to safety and 
health risks to fire fighters where a situation exceeds their 
capabilities. 

A.8.5.4 For additional information, see 29 CFR 1910.134, 
Respiratory protection. 

A.8.5.7 The assembling of four members for the initial fire 
attack can be accomplished in many ways. The fire depart- 
ment should determine in their response plan the manner in 
which they plan to assemble members. The four members as- 
sembled for initial fire-fighting operations can include an of- 
ficer, chief officer, or any combination of members arriving 
separately at the incident. 

Members who arrive on the scene of a working structural 
fire prior to the assembling of four persons can initiate exte- 
rior actions in preparation for an interior attack. These can 
include, but are not Mmited to, actions such as the establish- 
ment of a water supply, the shutting off of utilities, the place- 
ment of ladders, the laying of the attack line to the entrance of 
the structure, or exposure protection. 

If members are going to initiate actions that would involve 
entering a structure because of an imminent life-threatening 
situation where immediate action can prevent the loss of life 
or .serious injur)', and four members are not yet on the scene, 
the members should carefully evaluate the level of risk that 
they would be exposed to by taking such action. If it is deter- 
mined that the situation warrants such action, incoming com- 
panies should be notified so that they will be prepared to pro- 
vide necessary support and backup upon arrival. 

A.8.5.11 The following examples show how a department 
could deploy a team of four members initially at the scene 
of a structure fire, regardless of how the team members are 
assembled: 

(1) The team leader and one fire fighter could advance a 
fire-fighting hose line into the IDLH atmosphere, and 
one fire fighter and the pump operator become the 
standby members. 

(2) The team leader could designate the pump operator to 
be the incident commander. The team leader and one 
fire fighter enter the IDLH atmosphere, and one fire 
fighter and pump operator remain outside as the standby 
members. 

(3) Two fire fighters could advance the hose line in the IDLH 
atmosphere, and the team leader and pump operator re- 
main outside as standby members. 

A.8.5.18 Suidies have shown that the severity of incidents involv- 
ing AJRFF can rapidly escalate to catastrophic proportions. If fire 
fighting and rescue operations are to be effective, fully iissembled 
ARFF companies should be on-scene within the time require- 
ments as .specified in NFPA 403, Standard for Aircraft Rescue and 
Fire-Fighting Services at Airports. Experience has shown that it is ex- 
tremely difficult to assemble personnel who are responding from 
separate locations for individual AKFF companies within these 
time constraints. It is strongly recommended that the minimum 
ARFF company staffing level be three on-duty members respond- 
ing on or with each ARFF vehicle. 



[i] 

NFRT 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-47 



It is also recommended that structural fire apparatus re- 
sponding in support of ARFF operations should be staffed in 
accordance with A.8.5.1.1. (See also NIVA 1710, Standard for the 
Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emer- 
gency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by 
Career Fire Departments.) 

A.8.5.19 If advanced life support personnel are available, this 
level of service would be preferred. Basic life support is the 
minimum acceptable level. 

A.8.5.24 Consideration for rescue of members working over, 
in, and around water should be addressed by the incident 
commander and incident siifety officer within the incident ac- 
tion plan. 

A.8.6.2 Figure A.8.6.2 shows the concept of control zones. 
The hot zone is the area presenting the greatest risks to mem- 
bers and will often be classified as an IDl.H atmosphere. The 
hot zone can include exclusion zones. Examples of exclusion 
zones could be holes in floors, exploswe devices, crime scenes, 
and so forth. 

The warm zone is a limited-access area for members directly 
aiding or in support of operations in the hot zone. Significant 
risk of human injury (respiratoiy, exposures, etc.) can still exist in 
the warm zone. 

The cold zone establishes the public exclusion or clean zone. 
There are minimal risks for human injury and/or exposure in 
this zone. 

Wherever possible, control zones should be identified with 
colored hazard tape, signage, cones, flashing beacons, fences, 
or other appropriate means. However, because of the nature 
or location of the incident, available resources, or other con- 
siderations, it might not always be possible or practical to mark 
the control zones. 




Don't 
go here 
(danger) 



Don't_ 
go here 
(clanger) 



Hrt'^pW*' 



Warm zone 



Cold zone 



FIGURE A.8.6.2 Example of Control Zones. 



A.8.6.2.2 Members entering the hot zone without an assigned 
task are placing themselves at greater risk for no reason. In addi- 
tion, they can be increasing die risk of others operating wthin 
this zone by creating some confusion. 

A.8.7 For additional information on establishing safe practices 
at highway incidents, see the NFSIMSC publication, Incident Man- 
agement System Model Procedures Guide fhr Highiuay Incidents, the U.S. 
Fire Administration publication FA-272, Emergency Vehicle Safety 



Initiative, and the U.S. DOT publication, Manual on Uniform Traf- 
fic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Chapter 61. 

A.8.7. 5 Warning signs should be placed in the following se- 
quence based on the expected on-scene time: 

(1) The initial arriving apparatus should deploy the sign as 
shown in "Phase A" in Figure A.8.Y.5. 

(2) If the incident is expected to tiike longer than 15 to 30 min- 
utes, a second .sign should be deployed as shown in "Phase 
B" in Figure A.8.7. 5, and the original "Emergency Scene 
Ahead" sign should be changed to the appropriate direc- 
tional arrow. 

A.8.7. 10 Members that operate on roadway incidents should 
be provided with vests or garments that ensure proper reflec- 
tivity such as a highly retro-reflective vest (strong yellow, green, 
and orange). 

A..8.7.11 Proper training on traffic control can be obtained 
from local or state highway dep;irtments, law enforcement, and 
other agencies involved with controlling the roadway traffic. 

A.8.8.4 The difficulty in rescuing a downed member or mem- 
ber in trouble cannot be overstated. Wliile one crew/company 
might sutTice at a single-family dwelling, the act of re,scuing a 
member who is lost, trapped, or missing will become increas- 
ingly difficult at a large commercial building or high-rise 
building. 

The ability to rapidly deploy a rapid intervention crew/ 
company from the command post to an area remote from 
the location of the command post can adversely affect the 
successful rescue of a member'. Consideration should be 
given to assigning a RIC to each point of crew entry at a 
commercial building. 

For example, if the incident commander has established a 
tactical level management component (TLMC) at the front 
and rear of a commercial building, consideration should be 
given to assigning a RIC to each TLMC. Likewise, at a working 
fire in a high-rise building, consideration should be given to 
assigning multiple RICs to vertical positions near the area(s) 
of operation. At incidents such as the ones described, it could 
be desirable for the incident commander to establish a RIC 
TLMC comprised of multiple companies, dependent upon 
the complexity of the incident. 

A.8.9.1 Having a preplanned rehabilitation program that is 
applicable to most incident types is essential for the health and 
safety of members. The rehabilitation plan should outhne an 
ongoing rehabilitation for simple or short-duration incidents 
as well as a process to transition into the rehabilitation needs 
of a large or long-duration incident. 

A.8.9.2 See NFPA 1584, Recommended Practice on the Rehabilita- 
tion of Members Operating at Incident Scene Operations and Train- 
ing Exercises, for guidelines for implementing incident scene 
rehabilitation. 

A.8.9.3 Rest should be provided away from potentially toxic 
exposures and loud noises, preferably with the opportunity to 
dress down and sit down. 

Adequate water supplies should allow for up to 1 qt (1 L) 
per person for incidents lasting an hour or more. Water must 
be potable, such as in sealed individualized plastic botties. 
Avoid caffeinated and high-sugar beverages. 



2007 Edition 



1500-48 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HE.\LTH PROGRAM 




4 4 t t 



Ambulance, utility, 
or media vehicle 



(Optional) 



Fire apparatus 



Phase B 
\ i ft 




-Ambulance, utility, 
or media vetiicle 



(Optional) 



■ Fire apparatus 



Phase A: Install sign after arrival, channelizing devices within 15 minutes of arrival. 
Phase B: Install within 15 minutes after arrival of second apparatuses. 

FIGURE A.8.7.5 Typical Emet^ency Scene Application. 



In hot, humid conditions, and/or where members have been 
working hard for more than 40 minutes, a means to actively cool 
core body temperature should be provided to prevent heat stress. 
Forearm immersion in cool water, misting fans, cooling vests, and 
so forth are types of active cooling. For more information on 
active cooling, see "Active Versus Passive Cooling During Work in 
Warm Environments While Wearing Firefighting Protective 
Clothing," by G. A. Selkirk, T. M. McLellan, andj. Wong. 

Medical evaluation and treatment in the on-scene rehabili- 
tation area should be conducted according to EMS protocols 
developed by the fire department in consultation with the fire 
department physician and the EMS medical director. If ALS 
personnel are available, this level of EMS care is preferred. 

The assignment of an ambulance or other support crew to 
the rehabilitation function is essential during long-duration 
or heavy-exertion incident operations. This crew can assist 
with rehabilitation functions as well as be available to provide 
immediate life support needs for members. 

Food should be made available for longer-duration inci- 
dents (more than three hours). If possible, supplied food 
should be nutritious. Members should be provided with a 
means to wash contaminants from their hands and faces be- 
fore relueling. 



Weather factors during emergency incidents can impact se- 
verely on the safety and health of members, particularly dur- 
ing extremes of heat or cold. Where these factors combine 
with long-duration incidents or situations that require heavy- 
exertion, the risks to members increase rapidly. The fire de- 
partment should develop procedures, in consultation with the 
fire department physician, to provide relief from adverse cli- 
matic conditions. 

Typical rehabilitation considerations for operations dining 
hot-weather extremes are as follows: 

(1) Moving fatigued or unassigned personnel away from the 
hazardous area of the incident 

(2) Removal of FPE 

(3) Ensuring that personnel are out of direct sunlight 

(4) Ensuring that there is adequate air movement over per- 
sonnel, either naturally or mechanically 

(5) Providing for active cooling by using forearm immersion, 
misting fans, or other devices proven to quickly and effec- 
tively lower a member's core body temperature to avoid 
heat stress 

(6) Providing personnel with fluid replenishment, especially 
water 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX A 



1500-49 



(7) Providing medical evaluation for personnel showing signs 
or symptoms of heat exhaustion or heat stroke 

(8) Providing a change of clothing and possibly a change of 
protective garments 

Typical rehabiUtation considerations for operations during 
cold-weather extremes are as follows: 

(1) Moving fatigued or unassigned personnel away from the 
hazardous area of the incident 

(2) Providing shelter from wind and temperature extremes 

(3) Providing personnel with fluid replenishment, especially 
water 

(4) Providing medical evaluation for personnel showing signs 
or symptoms of frostbite, hypothermia, or other cold- 
related injury 

(5) Providing a change of clothing and possibly a change of 
protective garments 

A.8.9.5 The importance of hydration during wildland flre- 
fighting operations cannot be overemphasized. This concept 
should be clearly understood and utihzed by all members. A 
method of replenishment of this water supply should be in 
place to provide 8 qt to 12 qt (8 Lto 12 L) ofwaterper day, per 
member. 

A.8.10.1 Fire department members should not enter an envi- 
ronment where there is ongoing violence, or the threat of vio- 
lence such as pereons with weapons, without coordination with 
law enforcement personnel. This does not necessarily limit the 
ability of cross-trained fire/law enforcement personnel or spe- 
cialty trained EMS personnel from entering a violent scene to 
assist the law enforcement or fire department responders. 

A.8.10.3 Such situations include but are not limited to civil 
disturbances, tights, violent crimes, drug-related situations, 
family disturbances, deranged individuals, and people inter- 
fering with fire department operations. 

A.8.10.5 Incidents that appear routine in nature can, after 
the arrival of responding crews, turn into a violent or hostile 
environment. Astandard commrmication phrase, known only 
by commtmications personnel and other responders, can 
warn others to the dangers of the situation without triggering 
violence or hostilities. 

A.9.1.1 Where health, safety, building, and fire codes are not 
legally applicable to fire department facilities, steps should be 
taken to ensuie that equivalent standards are applied and en- 
forced. In the absence of local requirements, the provisions of 
NFFA 1, Unijorm Fire Code, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code; 
NFPA 101, Life Safely Code, NFPA 5000, Building Construction and 
Safety Code, the Uniform Plumbing Code, and the Uniform Me- 
chanical Code should be applied. In addition, the workplace 
safety standards specified in 29 CFR 1910, Occupational Safety 
and Health Standards, or an eqinvalent standard should be ap- 
plied. Applicable requirements of the Americans with Disabili- 
ties Act should be met. 

A.9.1.4 The intent is to ensure that members a.ssigned to 
these lire department facilities are protected by carbon mon- 
oxide detectors, especially in areas where the members are 
sleeping. NFPA 720, St(mda,rd for the Installation of Carbon Mon- 
oxide (CO) Warning Equipment in Dwelling Units, can sei"ve as a 
reference. 

A.9.1.5 As new stations are constructed or existing stations 
are renovated, a separation between the apparatus floor and 
living quarters should be provided. 



A.9.1.6 The operation of a fire department requires the stor- 
age and indoor operation of fire apparatus that are generally 
housed in an enclosed building. The need to keep the appara- 
tus and other vehicles ready for immediate service and in good 
operating condition, which requires the indoor running of 
vehicles for response and routine service/pump checks, 
makes storage in an enclosed area, such as an apparatus bay, 
necessary. The exhaust from all internal combustion engines, 
including diesel and gasoline-powered engines, contains over 
100 individual hazardous chemical components that, when 
combined, can result in as many as 10,000 chemical com- 
pounds. A large majority of the.se compounds are today listed 
by state and federal "regulatory agencies as being cancer caus- 
ing or suspected carcinogens. The target components listed by 
NIOSH/OSHA consist of both hydrocarbon carbon compo- 
nents and compounds, which are produced as both gas-phase 
and particulate-phase compounds. The gases and particidates, 
which are viewed by NIOSH and OSHA as life threatening, 
consist of a cancer-causing substance know as polynuclear aro- 
matic hydrocarbons (PAHs) . Gases in diesel exhaust, such as 
nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, benzene, sul- 
fur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and carbon 
monoxide, can also create health problems. According to 
NIOSH, human and animal studies show that diesel exhaust 
should be treated as a human carcinogen (cancer-causing sub- 
stance). In accordance with the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemi- 
cal Hazards, as it pertains to diesel exhaust, NIOSH recom- 
mends that occupational exposure to carcinogens be limited 
to the lowest feasible concentration. NIOSH uses OSHA's clas- 
sification, outiined in 29 CFR 1990.103, Definitions, which 
states in part, "Potential occupational carcinogen means any 
substance, or combination or mixture of substances, which 
causes an increased incidence of benign and/or malignant 
neoplasm, or a substantial decrease in the latency period be- 
tween exposure and onset of neoplasm in humans or in one or 
more experimental mammalian species as the result of any 
oral, respirator)' or dermal exposure, or any other exposure 
which results in the induction of tumors at a site other than 
the site of administration." This definition also includes any 
substance that is metabolized into one or more potential occu- 
pational carcinogen by mammals. 

A.9.1.9 As part of the fire station inspection program, the 
areas around the pole hole and the padding at the bottom of 
the pole should be regularly checked to ensure the safety of 
members u-sing the pole. 

A.9.3 In some jurisdictions, fire department facilities are 
maintained by other agencies. In these situations, fire depart- 
ments should develop a process to expedite requests for re- 
pairs or modifications to the facihty to address safety or health 
concerns. 

A.10.1.5 If any member, either career or volunteer, reports 
for duty under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or any other 
substance that impairs the member's mental or physical capac- 
ity, this situation cannot be tolerated. 

Evidence of substance abuse could include a combination of 
various factors such as slurred speech, red eyes, dilated pupils, 
incoherence, unsteadiness on feet, smell of alcohol or marijuana 
emanating from the member's body, inability to carry on a ratio- 
nal conversation, increased carelessness, erratic behavior, inabil- 
ity to perform ajob, or other unexplained behavioral changes. 

The po.ssibility of liability exists if a member who is under 
the infltience of alcohol or drugs is allowed to remain on duty, 



2007 Edition fcS 



1500-50 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL S.AFETY .«^D HEALTH PROGR.\M 



to operate or drive vehicles or equipment on dvity, or to drive a 
private vehicle from the duty site. A member who is believed to 
be under the influence of alcohol or drugs cannot be allowed 
to operate equipment or drive a vehicle, including a private 
vehicle, until the condition of the member has been deter- 
mined and verified. 

A.10.2.1 Fire departments .should consider use of the recruit- 
ing, mentoring, and training process found in the physical 
performance requirements referenced in the lAFF/lAFC Can- 
didate Physical Ability Test (CPAT) Manual. 

A.10.4.1 The health data base for a fire department should 
include the reports of regular physical evaluations, injury and 
illness reports, health exposures, and any supporting informa- 
tion that could be useful in tracking, analyzing, or predicting 
the health effects of various events on individuals or the 
group. This process should comply with the medical record- 
keeping requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous waste 
operations and emergency response. 

A.10.4.3 This information should be managed in a manner 
that respects the confidentiality of doctor-patient relation- 
ships. Electronic data processing is often employed to facili- 
tate management of such a data base. 

A.10.4.4 The fire department should try to obtain autopsy 
or other medical information for all deceased employees or 
former employees. This information could be useful in es- 
tablishing relationships between occupational factors and 
resulting fatalities at some time in the future. Autopsies for 
fire fatalities should be conducted and recorded according 
to a standard protocol. 

A. 10.5.1 Where fire department members routinely respond 
to emergency medical incidents, the fire department should 
consult with medical professionals and agencies on measures 
to limit the exposure of members to infectious and contagious 
diseases. This should include the provision and maintenance 
of equipment to avoid or limit direct physical contact with 
patients, when feasible. 

A,10.6.3 A fire department physician should have specific 
expertise and experience relating to the needs of tire de- 
partment members and a thorough knowledge of the physi- 
cal demands involved in emergency operations. If possible, 
the fire department physician should be a specialist in the 
field of occupational medicine. 

A. 10.6.4 Depending on the size and the needs of a fire de- 
partment, the fire department physician might or might not 
be required on a fuU-fime basis. Afire department should have 
a primary reladonship with at least one officially designated 
physician. This physician can serve as the primary medical 
contact and, in turn, deal with a number of other physicians 
and specialists. A large fire department can designate more 
than one fire department physician or might determine that a 
relationship with a group practice or multiple-provider system 
is more appropriate to its needs. In any case, the option to 
consult with a physician who is particularly aware of the medi- 
cal needs of fire department members and who is available on 
an immediate basis should exist. 

A.11.1.1 The fire department member a.ssistance program 
does not have to be financed by the fire department. Many 
community/county/state mental health agencies provide 
such services free of charge or at a nominal fee. The fire de- 
partment need have only the ability to identify when such 
problems exist and be able to offer confidential referrals to a 



professional who will provide the counseling. Although mem- 
ber assistance programs differ from one another in various 
ways according to the particular needs and resources of indi- 
vidual fire departments, member organizations, and mem- 
bers, there are certain components that are found in all qual- 
ity programs. The following program standards set forth by 
the Association of Labor-Management Administrators and 
Con.sultants on Alcoholism (ALMACA) address these pro- 
gram components and are strongly recommended: 

(1) The physical location of the member assistance program 
should facilitate easy access while ensuring confidentiality'. 

(2) There should be a review of medical and disability ben- 
efits to ensure that plans adequately cover appropriate 
diagnosis and treatment for alcohol, drug, and mental 
health problems. Where feasible, coverage should in- 
clude outpatient and day treatment care. 

(3) The member assistance program staff should be familiar 
with the provisions of the medical and disability benefit 
plans so they can adwse clients clearly as to the extent, 
nature, and co.st of the recommended treatment and the 
reimbursement available. 

The member assistance program staff should combine the 
following two primary qualifications: 

(1) Appropriate managerial and administrative experience 

(2) Skills in identifying problems, interviewing, motivating, 
referring clients, and, where appropriate, in counseling 
or related fields (Experience and expertise in dealing 
with alcohol-related problems is strongly recommended.) 

It is important that members and their families are in- 
formed about the member assistance program and the ser- 
vices it offers and are continually updated on its existence, 
availability, and confidentiality. Information about the mem- 
ber assistance program should be made available to all new 
members and their families. The member assistance program 
should maintain current information about alcoholism treat- 
ment services and other resources. These resources include 
Alcoholics Anonymous, Al-Anon, Alateen, and other self-help 
groups; appropriate health care; community services; and 
other professionals. Information about referral procedures, 
costs, and other relevant factors should be available. Profes- 
sionally trained individuals should be immediately available to 
assist members involved in traumatic incidents to reduce or 
deal with the effects of psychological stress. There should be a 
periodic review of the member assistance program to provide 
an objective evaluation of operation and performance. There 
should be an annual review of member assistance program 
staff performance. 

A.11.1.3 The policy statement should acknowledge that alco 
holism is a disease responsive to treatment and rehabilitation, 
and it should specify die responsibilities of management, mem- 
ber organizations, and members as they relate to the program. 
The member assistance program should not in any way alter 
management authority or responsibilities or the prerogatives of a 
member organization. Participation in the member assistance 
program should not affect future service or career advancement, 
nor should participation protect the member from disciplinaiy 
action for continued substandardjob performance or rule infrac- 
tions. Sponsorship of the program by management and the 
member organization is highly desirable. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-51 



A.11.1.4 Adherence to federal regulations on confidentiality 
of alcohol and other drug abuse records is required of pro- 
grams receiving federal funds, directly or indirectly. 

A.11.2.1 Health promotion should include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following activities: career guidance, family orien- 
tation, and educational programs on topics such as weight 
control, healthy heart, hypertension, stress management, nu- 
trition, preventive medicine, substance abuse, smoking cessa- 
tion, and retirement planning. For additional guidance in the 
implementation and management of the stress management 
component of a member assistance program, consult the U.S. 
Fire Administration publication FA-100, Stress Managermnl 
Model Program for Mainkdning Firefighter Well-Being. 

A.11.2.2 The fire department should develop a policy on the 
use of tobacco products for all members. The fire department 
should also develop a policy on the acceptance of new mem- 
bers into the fire department with regard to the u.se of tobacco 
products. 

A.12.1.2 Fire fighters frequently experience trauma, death, 
and sorrow. Critical incident stress is a normal reaction expe- 
rienced by normal people following an event that is abnormal. 
The emotional trauma can be serious. It can break through a 
person's defenses suddenly, or slowly and collectively, .so that 
the person can no longer function effectively. Critical incident 
stress is the inevitable result of tratnna experienced by fire 
service personnel. It cannot be prevented, but it can be re- 
lieved. Experiencing emotional aftershocks following a trau- 
matic event is a very normal reaction and should not be per- 
ceived as evidence of weakness, mental instability, or other 
abnormality. Symptoms can appear immediately after the inci- 
dent, hours later, or sometimes even days or weeks later. The 
symptoms can last for a few days, weeks, or months. Occasion- 
ally a professional counselor could be needed. Knowing the 
signs and symptoms and how to respond to them after the 
occurrence of a critical incident can greatly reduce the chance 
of more severe and long-term stress. Rapid intervention, talk- 
ing about the situation, and reassuring that these are normal 
reactions and feelings can help prevent more serious prob- 
lems later on, such as family and marital problems. To provide 
this intervention, the fire department should have access to a 
critical incident debriefing (CID) team. The main objective of 
the CID team is to lessen the impact of the critical incident, 
piU it into the proper perspective, and help maintain a healthy 
outlook. The CID team should consist of other fire fighters, 
support personnel, and mental health professionals specifi- 
cally trained in stress-related counseling. The team should be 
well represented by all types of members whether volunteer, 
call, or career, and by all ranks. All members should have a 
minimum of a two-day training seminar with continuing edu- 
cation in stress-related training as an ongoing part of the 
team's regular meetings. (Monthly meetings are recom- 
mended for active departments, while quarterly meetings 
could be sufficient for less-active departments.) Any individual 
should be able to initiate the debriefing procedure simply by 
contacting his/her supervisor or officer or the dispatch cen- 
ter. A contact list of the debriefing team members should be 
available in the dispatch center. Debriefmgs should be held 
for incidents that have the potential for having a stressful im- 
pact on members. It is important to remember that an event is 
traumatic when experienced as such. Generally, debriefmgs 
should be held at a station within 1 to 3 hours after the inci- 
dent. Debriefmgs should encourage brief discussions of the 
event, which in themselves help to alleviate a good deal of the 



stress. Debriefings are strictly confidential and are not a cri- 
tique of the incident. Information should be given on stress 
reactions and steps that members can take to relieve the symp- 
toms so that they can continue their normal activities as soon 
as the debriefing is over. Some common signs and symptoms 
of critical incident stress are fatigue, headaches, inability to 
concentrate, anxiety, depression, inappropriate emotional be- 
havior, intense anger, irritability, withdrawal from the crew 
and/or family, change in appetite, increased alcohol con- 
sumption, and a change in sleeping patterns. To help alleviate 
some of the emotional pain, members can rest more, contact 
friends, maintain as normal a schedule as possible, eat well- 
balanced and scheduled meals, keep a reasonable level of ac- 
tivity to fight boredom, express feelings, and talk to loved 
ones. Recent studies and research also indicate that exercise, 
especially soon after an event, can greatly reduce mental pain. 
Member assistance programs should always be available to 
members. The CID team is often the first step in providing the 
help that is needed and should be ready to ser\'e to help mini- 
mize stress-related injury. 



Annex B Monitoring Compliance with a Fire Service 
Occupational Safety and Health Program 

This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document 
but is included for informational purposes only. 

B.l The purpose of this standard is to specify the minimum 
requirements for an occupational safety and heafth program 
for a fire department (see 1.2. 1). Further, paragraph 1 .2.4 .says 
that nothing in the standard is intended to restrict any jurfs- 
diction from exceeding the minimum requirements stated in 
the standard. Section 1.5 requires that when the standard is 
adopted by a jurisdiction, the authority having jurisdiction 
shall set a date or dates for achieving compliance with the 
requirements of this standard. As part of that adoption, the 
fire department is required to adopt a risk management plan 
that includes a written plan for compliance with this standard. 

B.2 The worksheet (see Figure B.2) in this annex was developed 
to provide a template for fire departments that are beginning 
implementation of an occupational s;ifety and health program or 
that are evaluating the current status of their programs. 

B.3 This worksheet provides a tool for assessing the yearly 
progress of the program and for developing a fiscal policy plan 
to achieve compliance with the applicable requirements of the 
standard. In the second column, the u.ser can record the per- 
centage of compliance with a specific requirement, whether 
just getting started, about 50 percent complete, or in full com- 
pliance. The remarks can indicate factors that are affecting 
achieving compliance, whether they are financial, administra- 
tive, or in need of legislative action. Where compliance will 
cost money, the third column can be used to record an esti- 
mate of the cost to comply. Again the remarks can indicate 
whether this is an operating budget or a capital planning 
budget-type expense. The fourth column allows for indicat- 
ing an expected or anticipated compliance date. Any addi- 
tional remarks or changes should be included in the last col- 
umn for explanatory purposes. This is not a "one size fits all" 
worksheet and should be modified or expanded to meet the 
user's needs. 



2007 Edition 



1500-52 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET 

Fire Departmfint: Date: 


Person(s) Completing Worksheet 

Name: Title: 
Name- Title: 
Name: Title: 


Reference in Standard 


Percent in 
Compliance 


Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 


Expected 

Compliance 

Date 


Remarks 


Chapter 1 Administration 


1.4 Equivalency 

1.4.1 Equivalency levels of 
qualifications 

1.4.2 Training, education, competency, 
safety 


























Chapter 4 Organization 


4.1 Fire Department Organizational 
Statement 

4.1.1 Written statement or policy 

4.1.2 Operational response criteria 

4.1.3 Statement available for 
inspection 


































4.2 Risk Management Plan 

4.2.1 Written risk management plan 

4.2.2 Risk management plan coverage 

4.2.3 Risk management plan 
components 


































4.3 Safety and Health Policy 

4.3.1 Written fire department 
occupational safety and 
health policy 

4.3.2 Program complies with 
NFPA 1500 

4.3.3 Evaluate effectiveness of plan 


































4.4 Roles and Responsibilities 

4.4.1 Fire department responsibility 

4.4.2 Comply with laws 

4.4.3 Fire department rules, 
regulations, and SOPs 

4.4.4 Accident investigation procedure 

4.4.5 Accidents and illnesses 
investigated 

4.4.6 Individuals cooperate, participate, 
and comply 


























































© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 






NFPA 1500 (p. 1 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Fire Service Occupational Safety and Health Program Worksheet. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-53 



NFPA 1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 4 Organization (continued) 



4.4.7 Member has right to be protected 
and participate 










4.4.8 Member organization role 










4.5 Occupational Safety and Health 
Committee 










4.5.1 Establish committee 










4.5.2 Committee purpose 










4.5.3 Regular meetings 










4.6 Records 










4.6.1 Accidents, injury, illness, 
exposures, death records 










4.6.2 Occupational exposures 










4.6.3 Confidential health records 










4.6.4 Training records 










4.6.5 Vehicles and equipment records 










4.7 Appointment of the Health and 
Safety Officer 










4.7.1 Appointed by fire chief 










4.7.2 Meets qualifications 










4.7.3 Given authority to administer 
program 










4.7.4 Performing functions in 
NFPA 1521 










4.7.5 Managing occupational safety 
and health program 










4.7.6 Additional safety officers and 
resources available 











Chapter 5 Training, Education, and Professional Development 






5.1 General Requirements 










5.1.1 Establish and maintain safety 
and health training 










5.1.2 Training commensurate with 
duties and functions 










5.1.3 Training and education programs 
for new members 










5.1.4 Restrict the activities of new 
members 










5.1.5 Training on the risk management 
plan 










5.1.6 Training on department's written 
procedures 










5.1.7 Training for emergency medical 
services 











©2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA1500(p. 2of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition in 



1500-54 



FIRE DEPAliTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGl^iAM 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference In Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 5 Training, Education, and Professional Development (continued) 



) 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



5.1.8 Training on operation, limitation, 
maintenance, and retirement 
criteria for personal protective 
equipment 










5.1.9 Maintaining proficiency in skills 
and knowledge 










5.1.10 Training includes safe exiting 
and accountability 










5.1.11 Training includes incident 

management and accountability 
system used by the fire 
department 










5.2 Member Qualifications 










5.2.1 Fire fighters meet NFPA 1001 










5.2.2 Drivers/operators meet NFPA 1002 










5.2.3 Airport fire fighters meet 
NFPA 1003 










5.2.4 Fire officers meet NFPA 1021 










5.2.5 Wildland fire fighters meet 
NFPA 1051 










5.2.6 Hazardous materials responders 
trained to at least operations 
level per NFPA 472 










5.3 Training Requirements 










5.3.1 Adopt or develop training and 
education curriculums 










5.3.2 Training supports minimum 

qualifications and certifications 
of members 










5.3.3 Members practice assigned skill 
sets on a regular basis but not 
less than annually 










5.3.4 Training for members when 
written policies, practices, 
procedures, or guidelines are 
changed 










5.3.5 SCBA training program per 
NFPA 1404 










5.3.6 Wildland fire fighters trained 
at least annually in the proper 
deployment of fire shelter 










5.3.7 Live fire training in accordance 
with NFPA 1403 










5.3.8 Supervised training 










5.3.9 Emergency medical services 
training 











NFPA1500(p. 3of 18) 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500- 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 5 Training, Education, and Professional Development (continued) 




5.3.10 Training on care, use, inspection, 
maintenance, and limitations 
of the protective clothing and 
equipment 










5.3.11 Incident management training 
to NFPA 1561 










5.3.12 Infectious disease control 
training to NPPA 1581 










5.4 Special Operations Training 










5.4.1 Advanced training for special 
operations 










5.4.2 Train members for support to 
special operations 










5.4.3 Technician level for hazardous 
materials mitigation 










5.4.4 Rescue technician training to 
NFPA 1006 when required 










5.5 Member Proficiency 










5.5.1 Proficiency of members 










5.5.2 Monitor training progress 










5.5.3 Annual skills check 











Chapter 6 Fire Apparatus, Equipment, and Drivers/Operators 






6.1 Fire Department Apparatus 










6.1.1 Safety and health concerns 
related to fire apparatus 










6.1.2 New fire apparatus meets 
NFPA 1901 










6.1.3 New wildland fire apparatus 
meets NFPA 1906 










6.1.4 New marine fire-fighting vessels 
meet NFPA 1925 










6.1.5 Tools, equipment, and SCBA 
properly secured 










6.1.6 Apparatus refurbished per 
NFPA 1912 










6.1.7 Restraints and harnesses for 
aircraft operations 










6.2 Drivers/Operators of Fire 
Department Apparatus 










6.2. 1 Successful completion of approved 
driver training 










6.2.2 Complies with traffic laws 

including having valid driver's 
licenses 











©2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA1500(p. 4of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition 



1500-56 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGlU_M 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



)2006 National Fire Protection Association 



nGUREB.2 Continued 



Chapter 6 Fire Apparatus, Equipment, and 


Drivers/Operat 


ors (continued) 






6.2.3 Rules and regulations for 

operating fire department vehicles 










6.2.4 Drivers are responsible 










6.2.5 All persons secured 










6.2.6 Drivers obey all traffic laws 










6.2.7 SOPs for non-emergency and 
emergency response 










6.2.8 Emergency response, drivers 

bring vehicle to a complete stop 










6.2.9 Proceed only when safe 










6.2.10 Stop at unguarded railroad 
grade crossings 










6.2.11 Use caution at guarded railroad 
grade crossings 










6.2.12 SOPs — engine, transmission 
and driveline retarders 










6.2.13 SOPs — manual brake limiting 
valves 










6.2.14 Rules and regulations for private 
vehicles for emergency response 










6.3 Riding in Fire Apparatus 










6.3.1 Tail steps and standing prohibited 










6.3.2 Seat belts not released while the 
vehicle is in motion 










6.3.3 Secured to vehicle while perform- 
ing emergency medical care 










6.3.4 Hose loading operations 










6.3.5 Tiller training 










6.3.6 Helmets for riding in unenclosed 
areas 










6.3.7 Eye protection for riding in 
unenclosed areas 










6.3.8 Alternative transportation 










6.4 Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair 
of Fire Apparatus 










6.4.1 Apparatus inspected at least 

weekly or within 24 hours after 
any use 










6.4.2 Preventive maintenance program 










6.4.3 Fire apparatus inspection, 
maintenance, and repair per 
NFFA 1915 










6.4.4 Estabhsh Ust of defects to declare 
vehicle unsafe 











NFPA1500(p. 5of IE 



\M 2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-57 



NFPA 1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 6 Fire Apparatus, Equipment, and 


Driver/Operators (continued) 






6.4.5 Emergency vehicle technicians 
meet NFPA 1071 










6.4.6 Pumpers service tested per 
NFPA 1911 










6.4.7 Aerial ladders and elevating 

platforms tested per NFPA 1914 










6.4.8 Apparatus and equipment 
disinfected per NFPA 1581 










6.5 Tools and Equipment 










6.5.1 Safety and health are primary 
concerns 










6.5.2 Hearing conservation 










6.5.3 New 6re department ground 
ladders meet NFPA 1931 










6.5.4 New fire hose meets NFPA 1961 










6.5.5 New spray nozzles meet 
NFPA 1964 










6.5.6 Equipment inspected at least 

weekly and within 24 hours after 
any use 










6.5.7 Records maintained for the 
equipment 










6.5.8 Tested at least annually 










6.5.9 Defective or unserviceable 

equipment removed from service 










6.5.10 Tools and equipment cleaned 
per NFPA 1581 










6.5.11 Fire department ground ladders 
tested per NFPA 1932 










6.5. 12 Fire hose inspected and tested 
per NFPA 1962 










6.5.13 Portable fire extinguishers in- 
spected and tested per NFPA 10 










6.5.14 Powered rescue tools meet 
NFPA 1936 











Chapter 7 Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment 








7.1 General 










7.1.1 Fire department provides PPE 










7.1.2 Use of PPE 










7.1.3 PPE cleaned every 6 months per 
NFPA 1581 










7.1.4 Proper cleaning 










7.1.5 Where worn, station work 
uniforms meet NFPA 1975 











©2006 National Fire Protection Association 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



NFPA 1500 (p. 6 ofl 8) 



2007 Edition 



[i] 

HFnr 



1500-58 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEM,TH PROGRAM 



NFPA 1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 7 Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment (continued) 






7.1.6 Clothing considered thermally 
unstable not worn 










7.1.7 Laundry service available for 
contaminated clothing 










7.2 Protective Clothing for Structural 
Fire Fighting 










7.2.1 Protective clothing meets 
NFPA 1971 










7.2.2 Minimum 2 in. (50 mm) overlap 
of all protective clothing layers 










7.2.3 Overlap not required on single- 
piece protection coveralls 










7.2.4 Gloves have proper interface 










7.2.5 Program in place for selection, 
care, maintenance, and use of 
protective clothing 










7.2.6 Require all members to wear 

appropriate protective ensemble 










7.3 Protective Clothing for Proximity 
Fire-Fighting Operations 










7.3.1 Proximity fire-fighting protective 
equipment meeting NFPA 1971 
provided and used 










7.3.2 Minimum 2 in. (50 mm) overlap 
of all protective clothing layers 










7.3.3 Overlap not required on single- 
piece protection coveralls 










7.3.4 SCBA protected 










7.4 Protective Clothing for Emergency 
Medical Operations 










7.4.1 Emergency medical protective 
clothing meeting NFPA 1999 
provided and used 










7.4.2 Members use emergency medical 
gloves 










7.4.3 NIOSH-approved Type C 

respirators provided for exposure 
to airborne infectious disease 










7.4.4 Members use emergency medical 
body and face protection 










7.4.5 Infection control program for 
EMS protective clothing meets 
NFPA 1581 











)2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA1500(p. 7of 18) 



FIGURE B. 2 Continued 



im 2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-59 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 


Reference in Standard 


Percent in 
Compliance 


Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 


Expected 

Compliance 

Date 


Remarks 


Chapter 7 Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment (continued) 


7.5 Chemical-Protective Clothing for 
Hazardous Material Emergency 
Operations 

7.5.1 Members have and use vapor- 
protective garments that meet 
NFPA 1991 when appropriate 

7.5.2 Members have and use liquid 
splash-protective garments that 
meet NFPA 1992 when appropriate 

7.5.3 Members have and use appropriate 
protective ensemble for CBRN 
terrorism incidents 


































7.6 Inspection, Maintenance, and 
Disposal of Chemical-Protective 
Clothing 

7.6.1 Inspected and maintained per 
manufacturer's recommendation 

7.6.2 Dispose of contaminated garments 


























7.7 Protective Clothing and Equipment 
for Wildland Fire Fighting 

7.7.1 SOPs for use of protective clothing 

7.7.2 Protective clothing that meets 
NFPA 1977 provided and used 

7.7.3 Primary eye protection that meets 
NFPA 1977 provided and used 

7.7.4 Fire shelter provided and worn 
properly 










































7.8 Protective Ensemble for Technical 
Rescue Operations 

7.8.1 Technicalrescue protective 
clothing meeting NFPA 1951 
provided and used 

7.8.2 Minimum 2 in. (50 mm) overlap 
of all protective clothing layers 

7.8.3 Respiratory protection certified 
by NIOSH provided and used 

7.8.4 Primary eye protection that meets 
NFPA 1951 provided and used 

7.8.5 Protective clothing used and 
maintained per manufacturer's 
instructions 


















































7.9 Respiratory Protection Program 

7.9.1 Respiratory protection program 
addresses the selection, care, 
maintenance, and use 

7.9.2 SOPs address respiratory 
protection 


























© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 






NFPA 1500 (p. 8 oil 8) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition feS 



1500-60 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGl^M 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 


Reference in Standard 


Percent in 
Compliance 


Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 


Expected 

Compliance 

Date 


Remarks 


Chapter 7 Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment (continued) 


7.9.3 Members qualified at least 
annually in use 

7.9.4 Reserve SCBA provided and 
maintained 

7.9.5 Adequate reserve air supply 

7.9.6 Equipment stored ready-for-use 
and properly protected 

7.9.7 SCBA provided that meets 
NFPA 1981 and required to be 
used 

7.9.8 Members understand keeping 
facepiece in place 


















































7.10 Breathing Air 

7.10 Breathing air meets NFPA 1989 


















7.11 Respiratory Protection Equipment 

7.11.1 SCBA meet appropriate 
standards 

7.11.2 Supplied-air respirators 
appropriate for intended 
application 

7.11.3 Air-purifying respirators NIOSH 
certified with policy for use 


































7.12 Fit Testing 

7.12.1 Quantitative fit test annually 

7.12.2 New members fit tested before 
permitted in hazardous 
atmospheres 

7.12.3 Respirators quantitative fit 
testing in negative pressure 
mode 

7.12.4 AHJ-required test protocols 

7. 12.5 Records of facepiece fitting test 

7. 12.6 Protection factor at least 500 
for negative-pressure facepieces 


























































7.13 Using Respiratory Protection 

7.13.1 Facepiece-to-face seal required 

7.13.2 Nothing passes through area 
of seal 

7.13.3 No beard and facial hair in 
area of seal 

7.13.4 Spectacles fitted to inside of 
facepiece 

7.13.5 Spectacle strap or temple bars 
prohibited 

7.13.6 Contact lenses permitted 


























































©2006 National Fire Protection Association 




NFPA1500(p. 9of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-61 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 7 Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment (continued) 



7.13.7 Head covering breaking seal 
prohibited 










7.13.8 SCBA faceplece/head harness 
worn under protective hood 










7.13.9 SCBA facepiece/head harness 

worn under hazardous chemical- 
protective helmet 










7.13.10 Helmet does not interfere with 
the facepiece-to-face seal 










7.14 SCBA Cylinders 










7.14.1 Inspected annually 










7.14.2 Hydrostatic test cylinders 










7.14.3 In-service SCBA cylinders 
stored charged 










7.14.4 In-service SCBA cylinders 

inspected weekly, monthly, and 
prior to filling 










7.14.5 Personnel protected during 
SCBA cyhnder filling 










7.14.6 Unique situations for rapid 
filling identified 










7.14.7 Risk assessment process used to 
identify rapid filling situations 










7.14.8 Rapid refilling of SCBA on 
person limited 










7.14.9 Emergency situation for air 
transfer permitted 










7.14.10 TransfiUing per manufacturer's 
instructions 










7.15 Personal Alert Safety Systems 

(PASS) 










7.15.1 PASS meet NFPA 1982 










7. 15.2 New SCBA have integrated 
PASS 










7.15.3 Members provided with and 
use PASS device 










7.15.4 Tested at least weekly and 
prior to use 










7.16 Life Safety Rope and System 
Components 










7.16.1 Life safety rope and system 
components meet NFPA 1983 










7.16.2 Life safety rope used for other 
purposes removed from service 










7.16.3 Reuse of life safety rope only 
after evaluation 











© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA 1500 (p. 10 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition 



1500-62 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 


Reference in Standard 


Percent in 
Compliance 


Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 


Expected 

Compliance 

Date 


Remarks 


Chapter 7 Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment (continued) 


7.16.4 Rope inspection by qualified 
person 

7.16.5 Records document each life 
safety rope use 


















7.17 Face and Eye Protection 

7.17.1 Eye protection appropriate for 
hazard provided and used 

7.17.2 SCBA facepiece used as primary 
face and eye protection 

7.17.3 Prim ary eye protection used 
when full facepiece not used 


































7.18 Hearing Protection 

7.18.1 Provided and used when 
apparatus noise in excess of 
90dBA 

7.18.2 Provided and used when tool 
and equipment noise in excess 
ofgOdBA 

7.18.3 Hearing conservation program 


































7.19 New and Existing Protective 

Clothing and Protective Equipment 

7.19.1 New PPE meets current 
standards 

7.19.2 Existing PPE shall have met 
standards when manufactured 

7.19.3 PPE taken out of service after 
15 years 


































Chapter 8 Emergency Operations 


8.1 Incident Management 

8.1.1 Prevent accidents and injuries 

8.1.2 Incident management system in 
writing and meets NFPA 1561 

8.1.3 IMS used at all emergency 
incidents 

8.1.4 IMS applied to drills, exercises, 
and training 

8.1.5 Incident commander responsible 
for safety 

8.1.6 Incident safety officer assigned 
when needed 

8.1.7 Span of control 

8.1.8 Incident commander's 
responsibility 










































































© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 








NFPA 1500 (p. 11 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



\M 2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-63 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 


Reference in Standard 


Percent in 
Compliance 


Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 


Expected 

Compliance 

Date 


Remarks 


Chapter 8 Emergency Operations (continued) 


8.2 Communications 

8.2.1 Dispatch and incident 
communication systems meet 
NFPA 1561 and NFPA 1221 

8.2.2 SOPs for use of clear text radio 
messages 

8.2.3 Procedures for emergency traffic 

8.2.4 Incident clock used 










































8.3 Risk Management During 
Emergency Operations 

8.3.1 Risk management integrated in 
incident command 

8.3.2 Risk management principles used 

8.3.3 IC evaluates risk to members 

8.3.4 Risk management principles 
routinely employed by supervisors 

8.3.5 Incident safety officer with proper 
expertise appointed 

8.3.6 Protective equipment appropriate 
for CBRN exposure 

8.3.7 Consider providing atropine for 
nerve agents 


































































8.4 Personnel Accountability During 
Emergency Operations 

8.4.1 Written SOPs for personnel 
accountability 

8.4.2 Local conditions and character- 
istics considered 

8.4.3 Members actively participate 

8.4.4 IC maintains awareness 

8.4.5 TLMC officers supervise assigned 
companies/crews 

8.4.6 Company officers responsible for 
members 

8.4.7 Members remain with company 

8.4.8 Member responsible for following 
personnel accountability system 

8.4.9 Personnel accountability system 
used at all incidents 

8.4.10 Accountability system effective 

8.4.11 Additional accountability officers 

8.4.12 IC and supervisors responsible 
for tracking and accountability 
of assigned companies 










































































































© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 


NFPA 1500 (p. 12 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition 



1500-64 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 8 Emergency Operations (continued) 



8.5 Members Operating at Emergency 
Incidents 










8.5.1 Adequate number of personnel 
provided to safely conduct 
emergency operations 










8.5.2 No evolutions outside of 
established safety criteria 










8.5.3 Inexperienced members directly 
supervised 










8.5.4 Members operate in teams of 
two or more 










8.5.5 Crew members in communication 
with each other 










8.5.6 Crew members operate in 
proximity to each other 










8.5.7 Two in, two out in initial stages 










8.5.8 Standby members maintain 
awareness 










8.5.9 Standby members remain in 
communication 










8.5.10 Initial stage understood 










8.5.11 Standby member permitted to 
perform other duties outside of 
the hazard area 










8.5.12 Standby member restricted 
activities 










8.5.13 Standby members have full PPE 
and SCBA 










8.5.14 Standby members don full PPE 
and SCBA before entering 
hazardous area 










8.5.15 Standby member limitations 










8.5.16 Rapid intervention crew deployed 
when incident no longer in 
initial stage 










8.5.17 In imminent life-threatening 

situation, action to prevent loss 
of life permitted with less than 
four personnel 










8.5.18 At aircraft rescue and fire 
fighting, IDLH area within 
75 ft (23 m) of aircraft 










8.5.19 Highest available level of EMS 
available for special operations 










8.5.20 EMS personnel at hazmat 
operations meet NFPA 473 










8.5.21 IC requests EMS to be available 











©2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA 1500 (p. 13 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-65 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 


Reference in Standard 


Percent in 
Compliance 


Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 


Expected 

Compliance 

Date 


Remarks 


Chapter 8 Emergency Operations (continued) 


8.5.22 Members secured to aerial device 

8.5.23 PPE and SCBA used by fire 
investigators and otbers in IDLH 
atmosphere 

8.5.24 Water rescue members wear 
personal flotation devices 


























8.6 Control Zones 

8.6.1 Control zones are established 

8.6.2 Members operating in hot zone 
wear PPE and have assignment 


























8.7 Traffic Incidents 

8.7.1 Appropriate measures taken to 
protect members 

8.7.2 SOPs for operations involving 
traffic incidents 

8.7.3 Apparatus and warning devices 
used to protect members 

8.7.4 Apparatus positioned to protect 
members 

8.7.5 Warning devices used for 
oncoming traffic 

8.7.6 Warning device placement 
sensitive to conditions 

8.7.7 First unit addresses traffic issues 

8.7.8 Members and victims in secure 
area 

8.7.9 Unneeded vehicles parked off 
roadway 

8.7.10 Members wear garments with 
visible materials 

8.7.11 Members trained in traffic control 


































































































8.8 Rapid Intervention for Rescue of 
Members 

8.8.1 Personnel provided for rescue of 
members 

8.8.2 Rapid intervention crew equipped 
and available 

8.8.3 Composure and structure of RIG 
flexible 

8.8.4 IC provides RICs appropriate for 
incident size 

8.8.5 RIG status in early stages 

8.8.6 RIG status at expanded incident 

8.8.7 RICs for special operations 


































































©2006 National Fire Protection Association 




NFPA1500(p. 14 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition 



1500-66 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 


Reference in Standard 


Percent in 
Compliance 


Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 


Expected 

Compliance 

Date 


Remarks 


Chapter 8 Emergency Operations (continued) 


8.9 Rehabilitation During Emergency 
Operations 

8.9.1 SOP for rehabilitation of members 

8.9.2 IC initiates rehabilitation per 
SOPs and NFPA 1561 

8.9.3 On-scene rehabilitation to include 
complete support 

8.9.4 Each member responsible to 
communicate rehabilitation needs 

8.9.5 Each wildland fire fighter 
provided with 2 qt (2 L) of water 


















































8.10 Violence, Civil Unrest, or Terrorism 

8.10.1 Fire department not involved 
in activity without law enforce- 
ment present 

8.10.2 Fire department personnel not 
involved in crowd control 

8. 10.3 SOPs for member safety at 
civil disturbance 

8.10.4 Interagency agreement for 
protection of members 

8.10.5 Communication to indicate hfe- 
and-death situations 

8.10.6 Fire department to coordinate 
with law enforcement 

8.10.7 Fire department IC identifies 
and reacts to violent situations 

8.10.8 Fire department IC communicates 
with law enforcement IC 

8.10.9 Stage resources in a safe area 
until scene secure 

8.10.10 Secure law enforcement or 
withdraw when violence occurs 

8.10.11 Body armor used only by 
members trained and qualified 

8.10.12 Members supporting SWAT 
operations trained and 
operating under SOPs 










































































































8.11 Post-Incident Analysis 

8.11.1 SOPs for standardized post- 
incident critique 

8.11.2 Incident safety officer involved 
in critique 

8.11.3 Review of conditions and 
actions on the safety and health 
of members 


































©2006 National Fire Protection Association 




NFPA1500(p. 15 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



\M 2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-67 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 8 Emergency Operations (continued) 



8.11.4 Identify needed action to 

improve welfare of members 










8.11.5 Analysis includes standard 
action plan 











Chapter 9 Facility Safety 










9.1 Safety Standards 










9.1.1 Comply with codes 










9.1.2 Facilities for disinfecting, cleaning, 
and storage per NFPA 1581 










9.1.3 All facilities have smoke detectors 










9.1.4 All facilities have carbon 
monoxide detectors 










9.1.5 All facilities comply with 
NFPA 101 










9.1.6 Methods to prevent exhaust 
exposure 










9. 1.7 Contaminated PPE not in living 
and sleeping areas 










9.1.8 Smoke-free facilities 










9.1.9 Pole holes secured 










9.2 Inspections 










9.2.1 Annual code inspection 










9.2.2 Inspections documented 










9.2.3 Monthly safety and health 
inspection 










9.3 Maintenance and Repairs 










9.3 System to maintain facilities and 
correct safety or health hazards 











Chapter 10 IVIedical and Physical Requirements 



10.1 Medical Requirements 










10.1.1 IVIedical qualified before 
becoming a member 










10.1.2 Medical evaluation considers 
risks and functions associated 
with duties 










10.1.3 Candidates and members meet 
NFPA 1582 










10.1.4 Aircraft pilots comply with 
FAA regulations 










10.1.5 Members under influence of 

drugs or alcohol excluded from 
participation 











)2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA 1500 (p. 16 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition 



1500-68 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAI. Si\rEIT AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



NFPA1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 10 Medical and Physical Requirements (continued) 



© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



10.2 Physical Performance 
Requirements 










10.2.1 Fire department develops 
requirements 










10.2.2 Candidates qualified prior to 
training 










10.2.3 Members annually qualified 










10.2.4 Members not qualified not 
involved in emergency 
operations 

10.2.5 Physical performance rehabil- 
itation program available 


















10.3 Health and Fitness 










10.3.1 Health and fitness program 
meets NFPA 1583 










10.3.2 Fitness levels determined by 
individual's assigned functions 










10.3.3 Health and fitness coordinator 
administers the program 










10.3.4 Health and fitness coordinator 
acts as liaison 










10.4 Confidential Health Data Base 










10.4.1 Individual health file for each 
member 










10.4.2 Health file complete 










10.4.3 Composite data base for analysis 










10.4.4 Autopsy results in health data 
base 










10.5 Infection Control 










10.5.1 Fire department limits or 

prevents member's exposure 










10.5.2 Infection control program meets 
NFPA 1581 










10.6 Fire Department Physician 










10.6.1 Fire department physician 
officially designated 










10.6.2 Provides medical guidance in 
management of safety and 
health program 










10.6.3 Physician licensed 










10.6.4 Available on urgent basis 










10.6.5 Health and safety officer and 
health fitness coordinator 
liaison with physician 











NFPA 1500 (p. 17 of 18) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



\Si 2007 Edition 



ANNEX B 



1500-69 



NFPA 1500 
FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WORKSHEET (continued) 



Reference in Standard 



Percent in 
Compliance 



Estimated 
Cost to 
Comply 



Expected 

Compliance 

Date 



Remarks 



Chapter 1 1 Member Assistance and Wellness Programs 








11.1 Member Assistance Program 




mh<--^. , 






11.1.1 Provide member assistance 
program 










11.1.2 Program refers members to 

appropriate health care services 










11.1.3 Written poUcy on alcoholism 
and substance abuse 










11.1.4 Written rules for records 










11.1.5 Member assistance records not 
part of member's personnel file 










11.2 Wellness Program 










11.2.1 Wellness program established 










11.2.2 Program on health effects with 
tobacco products 











Chapter 12 Critical Incident Stress Program 








12.1 General 










12.1.1 Physician to provide guidance 










12.1.2 Written policy that estabhshes 
program to relieve stress 










12.1.3 Criteria for implementation 










12.1.4 Program, available to members 
for situations affecting members' 
psychological and physical 
well-being 











) 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA 1500 (p. 18 0118) 



FIGURE B.2 Continued 



2007 Edition feS 



1500-70 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATION/VL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



Annex C Building Hazard Assessment 

This annex is not apart of the requirements nflhisNFPA document 
but is included far infcn-matianal purposes only. 

C.l Fire fighters are being exposed to increased risks on the 
firegrOLind. Buildings are being occupied in a manner differ- 
ent from that for which they were originally designed. The 
design of some buildings has changed so that the roofs and 
floors can and do fail at a faster rate. Mezzanines over the floor 
area have created hazards during fire-fighting operafions. 
These changes have created safety hazards, which have in- 
creased the risks to fire fighters. 

Fire departments should take appropriate measures to 
identify buildings that can cause hazardous conditions during 
emergency operations. A method that could be used is to add a 
letter or letters to the bottom white "specific hazard" area on 
existing placards as specified in NFPA 704, Standard System for 
the Identification of the Hazards of Materials far Emergency Response. 
Some buildings are constructed utilizing several types of roof 
construction. The local fire department .should determine 
which identifier is used based upon the construction feature 
or hazard that creates the greatest risk to fire fighters. 

The identifier letter or letters that could be used are as follows: 

(1) A — Artisans living in a commercial building 

(2) LT — Iight\veight trusses used in roof or floor construction 
(e.g., roofs-open web, wooden I-beams) 

(3) AT — Arch trusses used in roof construction 

(4) P — Panelized roof construction 

(5) M — Mezzanines above floor area 

Fire departments should initiate local actions that allow for 
the local adoption of NFPA 704 placards, with the same iden- 
tifiers to be installed on nonplacarded buildings. 

The NFPA 704 marking .system could prove beneficial for 
first-responding companies and move-up companies, includ- 
ing companies used during mutual and automatic aid. 

It is recommended that fire departments develop tactical 
plans to address safety concerns for fire fighters confronted 
with buildings placarded with specific hazards. 



Annex D Risk Management Plan Factors 

This annex is not a part of the requiremenls of this NJ<PA document 
hut is included for infonnational purposes only. 

D.l Essentially, a risk management plan .serves as documen- 
tation that risks have been identified and evaluated and that a 
reasonable control plan has been implemented and followed. 
Some factors to consider for each step of the process are 
listed in D.1.1 through D.l. 6. 

D.1.1 Risk Identification. For eveiy aspect of the operation of 
the fire department, list potential problems. The following are 
examples of sources of information that could be useful in the 
process: 

( 1 ) A list of the risks to which members are or can be exposed 

(2) Records of previous accidents, illnesses, and injuries, both 
locally and nationally 

(3) Facility and apparatus surveys, inspections, and so fi)rth 

D.l. 2 Risk Evaluation. Evaluate each item listed in the risk 
identification process using the following two questions: 

( 1 ) What is the potential frequency of occurrence? 

(2) What is the potential severity and expense of its occurrence? 



This will help to set priorities in the control plan. 

Some sources of information that could be useful are the 
following: 

(1) Safety audits and inspection reports 

(2) Prior accident, illness, and injury statistics 

(3) Application of national data to the local circumstances 

(4) Professional judgment in evaluating risks unique to the 
jurisdiction 

D.l. 3 Establishment of Priorities for Action. Determining the 
frequency and severity of occurrence of risks will serve as a 
method for establishing priorities. Any risk that has a low prob- 
ability of occurrence but will have serious consequences (high 
risk) deserves immediate action and would be considered a 
high-priority item. Non-serious incidents with a low likelihood 
of occurrence are a lower priority and can be placed near the 
bottom of the "action required" list. 

D.1.4 Risk Control. Once risks are identified and evaluated, a 
control for each should be implemented and documented. 
The two primary methods of controlling risk, in order of pref- 
erence, are as follows: 

(1) Wherever possible, totally eliminate/avoid the risk or the 
activity that presents the risk. For example, if the risk is 
falling on the ice, then do not allow members to go out- 
side when icy conditions are present. 

(2) Where it is not possible or practical to avoid or ehminate 
the risk, steps should be taken to control it. In the ex- 
ample in D.l. 4(1), some methods of control would be 
sand/ salt procedures, the wearing of proper footwear, 
and so forth. 

D.1.5 Other Methods of Control. Other methods of control 
to consider are the following: 

(1) Safety program development, implementation, and en- 
forcement 

(2) Standard operating procedures development, dissemina- 
tion, and enforcement 

(3) Training 

(4) Inspections 

D.l. 6 Risk Management Monitoring and Follow-Up. As with 
any program, it is important to evaluate whether the plan is 
working. Periodic evaluations should be made, and, if the pro- 
gram elements are not working satisfactorily, then modifica- 
tions should be made. 

D.2 Figure D.2 shows a sample risk management plan. For 
additional information the user .should refer to NFPA 1250, 
Recommended Practice in Emergency Sendee Organization Risk Man- 
agement. 



Annex E Fire Fighter Safety at Wddland Fires 

This annex is not apart of the rejiuirements of this NI^PA document 
but is included fm- informational purposes only. 

E.l General. In addition to the obvious diflerence of .size, 
wildland fires require more personnel and more resources 
spread out over a larger area. Because of these factors, wild- 
land fires present three areas of safety concerns: the fire 
fighter, the area immediately surrounding the fire fighter, and 
the overall environment of the fire itself 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX E 



1500-71 



[ANYTOWN] FIRE DEPARTMENT 
RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN 



Purpose 

The [Anytown] Fire Department has developed and 
implemented a risk management plan. The goals and 
objectives of the plan are as follows: 

(1) To limit the exposure of the fire department to 
situations and occurrences that could have harmful or 
undesirable consequences on the department or its 
members 

(2) To provide the safest possible work environment for 
the members of the fire department, while recognizing 
the risks inherent to the fire department's mission 

Scope 

The risk management plan is intended to comply with 
the requirements of NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire 
Department Occupational Safety and Health Program. 

Methodology 

The risk management plan uses a variety of strategies 
and approaches to address different objectives. The 
specific objectives are identified from the following 
sources of information: 

(1) Records and reports on the frequency and severity of 
accidents and injuries in the [Anytown] Fire Department 

(2) Reports received from the [Anytown] Fire Department's 
insurance carriers 

(3) Specific occurrences that identify the need for risk 
management 

(4) National trends and reports that are applicable to 
[Anytown] 

(5) Knowledge of the inherent risks that are encountered 
by fire departments and specific situations that are 
identified in [Anytown] 

(6) Any additional areas identified by fire department 
staff and personnel 

Responsibilities 

The fire chief has responsibility for the implementation 
and operation of the department's risk management plan. 
The department's health and safety officer has the 
responsibility to develop, manage, and annually revise 
the risk management plan. The health and safety officer 
also has the responsibility to modify the risk management 
plan when warranted by changing exposures, 
occurrences, and activities. 

All members of the [Anytown] Fire Department have 
responsibility for ensuring their own health and safety 
based upon the requirements of the risk management 
plan and the department's safety and health program. 



Plan Organization 

The risk management plan includes the following: 

(1) Identification of the risks members of the fire 
department could actually or potentially encounter, 
both emergency and non-emergency 

(a) Emergency risks include those presented at 
emergency incidents, both fire and non-fire 
(e.g., hazardous materials), Emergency Medical 
Services incidents, and emergency response. 

(b) Non-emergency risks include those encountered 
while performing functions such as training, 
physical fitness, non-emergency vehicle operation, 
and station activities (e.g., vehicle maintenance, 
station maintenance, daily ofTice functions). 

(2) Evaluation of the identified risks based upon the 
frequency and severity factors 

(3) Development and implementation of an action plan 
for controlling each of the risks, in order of priority 

(4) Provisions for monitoring the effectiveness of the 
controls implemented 

(5) A periodic review of the plan with modifications 
made as needed 

The plan requires a monitoring process which may be 
done by the health and safety committee or the health 
and safety officers. 

Risk lUlanagement Plan l\/lonitoring 

(1) The [Anytown] Fire Department's risk management 
program will be monitored annually, in January, by 
the health and safety officer. 

(2) Recommendations and revisions will be made based 
on the following criteria: 

(a) Annual accident and injury data for the 
preceding year 

(b) Significant incidents that have occurred during 
the past year 

(c) Information and suggestions from department 
staff and personnel 

(3) Every 3 years, the risk management program will 
be evaluated by an independent source. 
Recommendations will be sent to the fire chief, the 
health and safety officer, and the occupational safety 
and health committee. 



FIGURE D.2 Sample Risk Management Plan. 



2007 Edition 



1 500-72 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY .\ND HEALTH PROGRA]\{[ 



Wildland fires require long hours of arduous work in the 
worst of conditions. 

Training personnel who respond to wildland fires should 
include the following as part of the training curriculum, as 
some wildland fire fighter fatalities have been attributed to the 
failure to follow the 10 Standard Fire Orders, or the failure to 
recognize one or more of the 18 Watch Out Situations. 

For the fire fighter, tools and personal protective equip- 
ment (PPE) are an essential part of the safety component. 
Some of the major differences in tools and PPE used by wild- 
land fire fighters are the following: 

(1) Flame-resistant trousers and shirts do not absorb mois- 
ture, allow air to pass through, and allow free movement. 

(2) Hardhat is hghtweight, impact-resistant, and well venti- 
lated to protect against heat stress. 

(3) Ventilated safety goggles with impact-resistant lenses mini- 
mize fogging. 

(4) Cotton bandana is u.sed for respiratory protection. 

(5) Leather gloves are treated for thermal and flame resis- 
tance and designed with minimal seams to prevent blis- 
ters when using tools. 

(6) High-top, leather work boots worn with wool socks are 
lightweight enough to prevent fatigue over long periods 
of time. 

(7) Field packs distribute weight along the hips and can be 
removed easily in emergencies. 

(8) Wool jacket has natural fire-resistant properties and good 
air flow. 

(9) Fire shelter is the last-chance lifesaver and used only when 
every possible means of escape is exhausted. 

The protective equipment used for wildland fire fighting 
does have limitations. Clothing does not provide thermal or 
steam protection. Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) 
are not used in the wildland environment, leaving fire fighters 
vulnerable to smoke inhalation and carbon monoxide poison- 
ing. Prolonged burning aggravates thermal inversions, trap- 
ping smoke and gases close to the ground and increasing the 
risk of exposure. 

E.2 Standard Fire Orders. The 10 Standard Fire Orders were 
developed in 19,57 by a task force studying ways to prevent fire 
fighter injuries and fatalities. If fire fighters follow the 10 Stan- 
dard Fire Orders and are alerted to the 18 Watch Out Situa- 
tions, much of the risk of fire fighting can be reduced. 

The National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) 
parent group approved the revision of the 10 Standard Fire 
Orders in accordance with their original arrangement. The 
original arrangement of the Orders is logically organized to 
be implemented systematically and applied to all fire situa- 
tions, as follows: 

10 STANDARD FIRE ORDERS 
Fire Behavior 

(1) Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts. 

(2) Know what your fire is doing at all times. 

(3) Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the 
fire. 

Firdine Safety 

(4) Identify escape routes and make them known. 

(5) Post lookouts when there is possible danger. 

(6) Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act decisively. 
Organizalional CorUrol 

(7) Maintain prompt communications with your forces, 
your supervisor, and adjoining forces. 



(8) Give clear instructions and ensure they are understood. 

(9) Maintain control of your forces at all times. 
If 1 through 9 are considered, then 

(10) Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first. 

The 10 Standard Fire Orders are firm. We don't break 
them; we don't bend them. All fire fighters have a right to a 
safe assignment. 

E.3 Lookouts, Coinnniiiications, Escape Routes, and Safety 
Zones (LCES). In the wildland fire environment, four basic 
safety hazards confront the fire fighter: lightning, fire- 
weakened timber, rolling rocks, and entrapment by running 
fires. Each fire fighter must know the interconnection of 
Lookouts, Communications, Escape Routes, and Safety Zones 
(LCES). LCES should be estabhshed before fighting the fire: 
select lookouts, set up communications, choose escape routes, 
and select safety zones. 

LCES functions sequentially; it is a self-triggering mecha- 
nism. Lookouts a.ssess, and reassess, the fire environment and 
communicate threats to safety; fire fighters use escape routes 
to safety zones. All fire fighters should be alert to changes in 
the fire environment and have the authority to initiate com- 
munication. 

LCES is built on the following two basic guidelines: 

(1) Before safety is threatened, each fire fighter must know 
how the LCES system will be used. 

(2) LCES must be re-evaluated continuously as fire conditions 
change. 

The LCES system approach to fireline .safety is an outgrowth 
of an analysis of fatalities and near misses for over 20 years of 
active fireline suppression duties. LCES simply focuses on the 
essential elements of the Standard Fire Orders. Its use should be 
automatic in fireline operations, and all fire fighters should know 
the LCES interconnection. 

E.4 Watch Out Situations. Shortiy after the Standard Fire Or- 
ders were incorporated into fire lighter training, the 18 situations 
that shout Watch Out were developed. These 18 situations are 
more specific and cautionaiy than the Standard Fire Orders, and 
describe situations that expand the 10 points of the Fire Orders, 
as follows: 

18 WATCH OUT SITUATIONS 

(1) Fire not scouted and sized up 

(2) In countiy not seen in daylight 

(3) Safety zones and escape routes not identified 

(4) Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing 
fire behavior 

(5) Uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards 

(6) Instructions and assignments not clear 

(7) No communication link between crew members and 
supervisors 

(8) Constructing line without safe anchor point 

(9) Building fine downhill with fire below 

(10) Attempting frontal assault on fire 

(11) Unburned fuel between you and the fire 

(12) Cannot see main fire, not in contact with anyone who 
can 

(13) On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below 

(14) Weather gets hotter and drier 

(15) Wind increases and/or changes direction 

(16) Getting frequent spot fires across line 

(17) Terrain or fuels make escape to safety zones difficult 

(18) Feel like taking a nap near fireline 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX F 



1500-73 



Annex F Hazardous Materials PPE Information 

This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document 
but is included for informational purposes only. 

F.l Fire departmeiit personnel involved in a hazardous mate- 
rials incident should be protected against potential chemical 
hazards. The purpose of chemical-protective clothing and 
equipment is to shield or isolate individuals from the chemical 
hazards that can be encountered during hazardous materials 
responses. Adequate chemical-protective clothing should be 
carefully selected and used to protect the respiratory system, 
skin, eyes, face, hands, feet, head, body, and hearing. 

Structural fire-fighting protective clothing and equipment 
should not be used for hazardous materials incidents. Even 
where certified to the appropriate NFPA standards for structural 
fire fighting, these clothing and equipment items provide little or 
no protection against hiizardous materials. Use of this clothing 
for hazardous materials emergency response can result in serious 
injury or death, as explained in F.1.1 through F.l. 3. 

F.1.1 Structural fire-fighting protective clothing materials are 
easily permeated or penetrated by most hazardous materials. 
Some parts of structural fire-fighting clothing can actually ab- 
sorb chemical liquids or vapors, increasing the likelihood of 
serious exposure. 

F.l. 2 Many hardware items will fail or lose function when 
contacted by chemicals (e.g., etching of visors, deterioration 
of straps, corrosion of hooks or other metal items). 

F.l. 3 Contamination of structural fire-fighting protective 
clothing might not be effectively removed by laundering. Re- 
use of contaminated clothing can cause chronic exposure and 
accelerate physiological effects produced by contact with the 
chemical. Fire fighters should realize that no single combina- 
rion of protective equipment and clothing is capable of pro- 
tecting them against all hazards. Therefore, chemical- 
protective clothing .should be used in conjunction with other 
protective methods. The use of such clothing can create sig- 
nificant wearer hazards, such as heat stress and physical and 
psychological stress, as well as impaired vision, mobility, and 
commtmication. In general, the greater the level of chemical 
clothing protection, the greater are the associated risks. For 
any given situation, equipment and clothing should be .se- 
lected that provide an adequate level of protection. Overpro- 
tection as well as underprotection can be hazardous and 
should be avoided. The approach to selecting personal protec- 
tive clothing and equipment should encompass an ensemble 
of clothing and equipment items that are easily integrated to 
provide both an appropriate level of protection and the ability 
to can7 out emergency response activities. The following is a 
checklist of components that can form die chemical-protective 
ensemble: 

(1) Protective clothing (i.e., suit, coveralls, hoods, gloves, 
boots) 

(2) Respiratory equipment (i.e., SCBA, combination SCBA/ 
SAR) 

(3) Cooling system (i.e., ice vest, air circulation, water circula- 
tion) 

(4) Communications device 

(5) Head protection 

(6) Ear protection 

(7) Inner garments 

(8) Outer protection (i.e., overgloves, overboots, flashcovers) 



F.2 Emergenqf Response PPE Information. For emergency 
response, the only acceptable types of protective clothing in- 
clude fully or totally encapsulating suits and nonencapsulating 
or "splash" suits combined with accessory clothing items such 
as chemical-resistant gloves and boots. These descriptions ap- 
ply to how the clothing is designed, not to its performance. 
NFPA has classified chemical-protective suits by their perfor- 
mance in the following two standards: 

(1) Vapor-protective suits (NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor- 
Protective Ensembles for Hazardous Materials Emergencies) 
(Level A) 

(2) Liquid splash-protective suits (NFPA 1992, Standard on 
Lifjuid Splash-Protective Ensembles and Clothing for I-Iazardous 
MatericUs Emergencies) (Level B with SCBA) 

Protective clothing should completely cover both the wearer 
and the wearer's breathing apparatus. Wearing SCBA or other 
respiratory equipment outside the suit subjects this equipment to 
the chemically contaminated environment. The SCBA used for 
hazardous materials emergency response are generally the same 
as those used in structural fire fighting. Respii^atory protective 
equipment is not designed to resist chemical contamination and 
should be protected from these environments. NFPA 1991 vapor- 
protective suits require that respiratory protection SCBA be worn 
on the inside. NFPA 1992 liquid splash-protective suits can be 
configured with the SCBA on either the inside or the outside. 
However, it is strongly recommended that respiratoiy equipment 
be worn inside the ensemble to prevent its failure and to reduce 
decontamination problems. 

A variety of accessories are available for chemical-protective 
ensembles. As with protective clothing and respirators, it is 
important that these components integrate easily into an en- 
semble without a decrease in the protective integrity offered 
by any one component. For the most part, the protective suit is 
the main integrating ensemble component because it should 
accommodate all other equipment while completely covering 
the wearer. Nevertheless, selection of an ensemble configura- 
tion should consider all items simultaneously. 

Fire departments are faced with selecting a number of 
available chemical-protective garments and sorting through 
the variety of information provided by the manufacturer. 
What follows are some guidelines that can be used in selecting 
chemical-protective suits. 

F.2.1 It must be determined if the clothing item is intended 
to provide vapor or liquid splash protection. Vapor-protective 
suits also provide liquid splash protection. Both vapor- and 
liquid splash-protective suits also provide protection against 
sohd chemicals and particles. Many garments can be labeled as 
totally encapsulating but do not provide gastight integrity due 
to inadequate seams or closings. Splash suits must still cover 
the entire body when combined with the respirator, gloves, 
and boots. Applying duct tape to a splash suit does not enable 
it to protect against vapors. Gastight integrity can only be de- 
termined by performing a pressure or inflation test of the re- 
spective protective stiit, which should be clone per the manu- 
facturer's recommendation. ASTM F 1052, Standard Test 
Method for Pressure Testing Vapor Protective linsernbks, offers a pro- 
cedure for conducting this test. This test involves the follow- 
ing: 

( 1 ) Closing off suit exhalation valves 

(2) Inflating the suit to a prespecified pressure 

(3) Observing whether the suit holds the above pressure for a 
designated period of time 



2007 Edition iS 



1500-74 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUP/VTIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



Liquid splash-protective suits should provide "liquidtight" in- 
tegrity. Liquiddght integrity is best evaluated by determining how 
the chemical-protective suit and other clothing prevent sprayed 
liquid from contacdng the wearer. ASTM F 1359, Standard Test 
Method for Liquid Penetration Resistance of Protective Clothing or Protec- 
tive Ensembles Under a Shoiver Spray While on a Mannequin, offers 
procedures for conducting this test involving the placement of 
the suit and other clothing over a mannequin that is dressed in a 
water-absorptive garment. Surfactant-treated water is sprayed at 
the suited mannequin from several different directions. Observa- 
tions of water penetration on the water-absorptive garment indi- 
cate a lack of liquidtight integrity. In particular, seam, closure, 
and clothing item interface areas should be examined closely for 
watertight integrity. 

F.2.2 It should be determined if the clothing item provides full- 
body protection. A vapor-protective or totally encapsulating suit 
will meet this requirement by passing gastight integrity tests. Liq- 
uid splash-protective suits can have separate parts. Missing cloth- 
ing items should be obtained separately and match or exceed the 
performance of the garment. Buying a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
glove for a PVC splash suit does not mean that the same level of 
protection is obtained. This determination should be made by 
comparing chemical resistance data. 

Component parts of the liquid splash-protective suit 
should also integrate and provide liquidtight integrity as 
described previously. 

F.2.3 The manufacturer's chemical resistance data provided 
with the garment should be evaluated. Technical data pack- 
ages are required to be supplied by the manufacturers of pro- 
tective suits that are certified to NFPA 1991 or NFPA 1992. 
Manufacturers of vapor-protective suits should provide perme- 
ation resistance data for their products, while penetration re- 
sistance data should accompany liqiud splash-protective gar- 
ments. Data should be provided for every primary material in 
the suit, including the garment, visor, gloves, and boots. 

Permeation datii should include a citation that testing was 
conducted in accordance with ASTM F 739, Standard Test Method 
for Resistance of Protective Clothing Materials to Permeation by Liquids or 
Gases Under (Conditions of Continuous Contact, and the following: 

(1) Chemical name 

(2) Breakthrough time (indicates how soon the chemical per- 
meates) 

(3) Permeation rate (indicates the rate at which the chemical 
permeates) 

(4) System sensitivity (allows comparison of test results from 
different laboratories) 

If no data is provided or if the data lacks any of the informa- 
tion above, the manufacturer should be asked to supply the miss- 
ing data or the product will not be considered. Manufacturers 
that provide only numerical or qualitative ratings should support 
tlreir recommendations with complete test data. 

Penetration data should include a pass or fail determination 
for each chemical listed and a citation that testing was conducted 
in accordance with ASTM F 903, Standard Test Method for Resistance 
of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Liquids. Pro- 
tective suits that are certified to NFPA 1991 or NFPA 1992 should 
meet all of the above requirements. 

Suit materials that show no breakthrough or no penetra- 
tion in response to a large number of chemicals are likely to 
have a broad range of chemical resistance. (Breakthrough 
times greater than 1 hour are usually considered to be an in- 
dication of acceptable performance.) If there are specific 



chemicals within a response area that have not been tested, 
the manufacturer should be consulted for test data on these 
chemicals. 

F.2.4 The manufacturer's instruction manual should be ob- 
tained and examined. 

This manual should document all the features of the suit 
and describe those materials that are used in its construction. 
It should cite specific limitations for the suit and the restric- 
tions that apply to its use. Procedures and recommendations 
should be supplied for at least the following: 

(1) Donning and doffing 

(2) Inspection, maintenance, and storage 

(3) Decontamination 

(4) Use 

The manufacturer's instaictions should be thorough enough 
to allow trained fire department members to wear and use the 
suit without a large number of questions. 

F.2.5 Sample garments should be obtained and inspected. 

An examination of the quality of suit construction and 
other features that will impact its wearing should be made. If 
possible, representative garments should be obtained in ad- 
vance, inspected prior to purchase, and reviewed with an indi- 
vidual who has experience in their use. It is also helpful to "try 
out" representative garments prior to purchase by having per- 
sonnel run through exercises to simulate response activities 
while wearing the garments. 

Despite the fact that a fire department has gone through a 
very careful selection process, a number of situations will arise 
where no information is available to judge whether the protec- 
tive clothing chosen will provide adequate protection. These 
situations include the following: 

(1) Chemicals that have not been tested with the garment 
materials 

(2) Mixtures of two or more different chemicals 

(3) Chemicals that cannot be readily identified 

(4) Lack of data in all suit components (e.g., gloves, visors) 

Testing material specimens using newly developed field 
test kits can offer one means for making on-site clothing 
selections. A portable test kit has been developed by the 
EPA using a simple weight lo.ss method that allows field 
qualification of protective clothing materials within 1 hour. 
Use of this kit can compensate for the absence of data and 
provide additional criteria for clothing selection. Selection 
of chemical-protective clothing is a complex task and 
should be performed by personnel with both extensive 
training and experience. Under all conditions, clothing 
should be selected by evaluating its performance character- 
istics against the requirements and limitations imposed by 
the response activity. 

Annex G Sample Facility Inspector Checklists 

This annex is not a part of the requirem,enls of this NFPA document 
but is included for informational purposes only. 

G.I Figure G.l is a facilities safety checklist used by the Virginia 
Beach Fire Department to document ancl recorcl fire depart- 
ment facility inspections. Fire departments are encouraged to 
develop an inspection form and procedure that works for their 
jurisdiction. The inspection procedure should provide direction 
for company officers to conduct inspections of their particular 
facilities at least annually as required by this standard. 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX G 



1500-75 



FACILITY SAFETY CHECKLIST 



Facility: 



Date: 



GENERAL 

The required OSHA workplace poster shall be 
displayed in the station, as required, where all 
employees are likely to see it. 

Emergency instructions and telephone numbers 
shall be available for the general public, in the 
event of an emergency and fire personnel are out 
of quarters. 



Cooking appliances, including gas and charcoal 
grills, and eating utensils shall be kept clean and 
in good working order. 



Comments: 



Comments: 



II. 



HOUSEKEEPING 

All rooms, offices, hallways, storage rooms, and 
the apparatus floor shall be kept clean and orderly 
and in a sanitary condition. 

All hallways and/or passageways shall be free 
from any type of hazards. 

All waste containers shall be emptied regularly. 

Waste containers shall be provided in the kitchen 
and/or eating areas. These containers shall be 
maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. 
Waste container liners are required in all waste 
containers kept in kitchen and/or eating areas. 



All areas of the station shall be adequately 
illuminated. 

Stairways shall be in good condition with standard 
railings provided for every flight having four or 
more risers. 

Portable ladders shall be adequate for their 
purpose, in good condition, and have secure 
footing. 

Fixed ladders shall be equipped with side rails, 
cages, or special climbing devices. 

Containers of all cleaning agents shall be carefully 
labeled per OSHA standards. 

First aid supplies shall be available and clearly 
identified as to location. 

Shower curtains shall provide adequate protection 
to prevent floors from becoming excessively wet 
and slippery. 



) 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



FIGURE G. 1 Sample Facilities Safety Checklist. 



III. 



EXITS 

All exits shall be visible and unobstructed. 

All exits shall be marked with a readily visible sign 
that is illuminated if required by building code. 

Doors that might be mistaken for exits shall be 
marked "Not an Exit" if required by building code. 

Exits and exit signs shall be free of decoration, 
draperies, and/or furnishings. 

Primary exit routes shall be obvious, marked, and 
free of obstruction. 



Exits shall be wide enough for easy access. 



Comments: . 



IV. 



WALKING AND WORKING SURFACES 

Floors shall be kept as clean and dry as possible. 

Fire fighters' routes to slide poles or to apparatus 
shall be completely free of projections, tripping 
hazards, loose objects, or other impediments. 

All slide pole floor openings shall be provided with 
safety enclosures. 

A safety mat shall be provided at the bottom of the 
slide pole. 

The slide pole shall be regularly inspected and 
maintained. 



Comments: 



NFPA1500(p. 1 of 4) 



2007 Edition 



1500-76 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONyU. SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



FACILITY SAFETY CHECKLIST (continued) 



V. 



APPARATUS FLOOR AND MAINTENANCE 
AREAS 

_ All projecting tools and objects shall be clearly 
marked to warn against "head hump" accidents. 

_ Apparatus overhead doors shall be maintained in 
a safe, operating condition. 

. Apparatus doors shall have adequate space for 
proper clearance for vehicles. 

_ Maintenance pits shall be adequately covered, 
sufficiently lighted, and ventilated. 

_ Pit boundaries shall be clearly marked. 

. The pit floor shall be kept as clean and dry as 
possible. 

. Work rests on grinders shall be adjusted to within 
Va in, to the grinding wheel. 

. Grinders and grinding wheels shall be adequately 
guarded. The safety guard shall cover the spindle 
end, the nut, and the flange protection. 

. All power tools shall be provided with proper 
guarding for electrical, cutting, and moving parts. 

Maintenance hand tools shall be safely stored 
when not being used. They shall be inspected 
periodically and maintained to assure their safe 
condition. 

Unsafe conditions to check: 

Is the tool clean? 

Are handles/grips broken? 

Are there worn defective points/parts on 

the tool? 

Are there parts missing? 

Are safety guards and devices in place and 

in proper working condition? 

Pulleys and belts shall be properly guarded. 

Chain drives and sprockets shall be guarded. 

Air cleaning nozzles shall not emit more than 
30 psi dead end pressure. 

A spotter shall be used when vehicles are backed 
up. A spotter shall be used when a vehicle is 
driven forward or backward over a pit. 



Comments: 



VI. 



LAUNDRY, CLEANING, AND DISINFECTING 
AREAS 

. The station designated cleaning and disinfecting 
area for the care of linen, work uniforms, EMS 
equipment, and other portable equipment shall be 
clean and orderly. 

The designated cleaning and disinfecting area shall 
be physically separate from the areas used for food 
preparation, cleaning of food or cooking utensils, 
personal hygiene, and sleeping or living areas. 

Cleaning and disinfecting facilities shall be 
equipped with rack shelving of nonporous 
material located above the sink for drip drying 
of cleaned equipment. 

The utility sink used in the cleaning and 
disinfecting area shall be kept clean and free of 
obstruction, and objects shall not be left in the 
sink. 

The washer and dryer shall be kept clean and in 
good working condition to assure decontamination 
of work uniforms and linen. 

A five-gallon biohazard waste container shall be 
maintained at each station. The container shall be 
emptied at least weekly. 



Comments: 



VII. BUILDING EXTERIOR AND GROUNDS 

The exterior of the building shall be in good 

condition. There shall be no missing finishes or 
temporary repairs. Roof shingles shall not be 
missing, and all windows shall function. 

There shall be no accumulation of debris or trash 

next to the building or on the station grounds. 

All walkway surfaces, parking lots, and ramps 

shall be free of hazards and in good condition. 

All exterior lighting shall work as designed. 

All detached storage buildings shall be kept in 

good condition and present no obvious hazards. 

Comments: 



) 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA1500(p. 2of4) 



FIGURE G.l Continued 



hS9 2007 Edition 



ANNEX G 



1500-77 



FACILITY SAFETY CHECKLIST (continued) 



VIM. DECONTAMINATION ROOMS 

The decontamination room shall be clean and 

orderly and free of storage not related to 
decontamination. 

The decontamination room shall have instructions 

clearly posted as to how to proceed through 
decontamination. 

There shall be an inventory on hand in the 

decontamination room, and the inventory shall be 
complete with the supplies on hand. 

The decontamination washer and dryer shall be 

clean and in working condition. 

There shall be instructions posted as to the use of 

the washer and dryer. 

Comments: 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

Cylinders of compressed gas shall be stored away 
from combustible materials, in an upright position, 
and properly secured to prevent cylinders from 
falling over. 

Flammable and combustible materials shall be 
stored in tanks or closed containers per NFPA 30 
and building code requirements. Flammable and 
combustible liquids in excess of 30 gallons must 
be stored in an approved storage locker. The 
containers must be made of metal, or the 
containers must be stored in a storage cabinet 
approved for flammable materials. 

Safety containers shall have self-closing lids and 
shall be used for the storage of flammable liquids 
and soiled, oily rags. 



Comments: 



IX. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 

Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in 

a fully operable condition and kept in designated 
places when not in use. They shall be inspected on 
a monthly basis. 



XI. 



Fire extinguishers shall be of the proper size/type 
for the expected hazard. 

The fire extinguisher shall have a durable tag 
securely attached to show the maintenance or 
recharge date. Also, the initials or signature of the 
person who performed the inspection shall be on 
the tag. 

If the station is equipped with a fire alarm system, 
the system shall be maintained and tested by a 
qualified person to the requirements of NFPA 72. 

If the station is equipped with a sprinkler system, 
the system shall be maintained and tested by a 
qualified person to the requirements of NFPA 25. 

The minimum clearance of 18 in. shall be 
maintained below the sprinkler heads. 

Smoke detectors shall be inspected and tested 
quarterly. 

Carbon monoxide detectors shall be inspected and 
tested quarterly. 



ELECTRICAL WIRING, FIXTURES, AND 
CONTROLS 

Electrical cords shall be strung so they do not 
hang on pipes, nails, hooks, etc. 

Conduit shall be attached to all supports and 
tightly connected to junction and outlet boxes. 

All electrical cords shall be checked for fraying. 

All equipment shall be securely mounted to the 
surface on which it sits. 

Flexible cords and cables shall not be used as a 
substitute for fixed wiring. 

All extension cords shall be properly grounded and 
approved. 

All electrical tools, whether department owned or 
personal property, shall be properly protected for 
damaged power cords, plugs, worn switches, 
defective ground circuits, or other faults that 
might render them unsafe for use. 

Electrical panel boxes and circuit breakers shall be 
marked to show their purpose. 

Electrical switches, outlets, panel boxes, and 
junction boxes shall be properly covered. 



Comments: 



Comments: 



© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA 1500 (p. 3 of 4) 



FIGURE G.l Continued 



2007 Edition feS 



1500-78 



FIRE DEPAl^TMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



FACILITY SAFETY CHECKLIST (continued) 



XII. OTHER 



Check all physical fitness equipment for safety 
issues. Inspect all cables, pulleys, seats, hinges, 
handles, grips, and connectors. 

Check the physical fitness equipment inventory to 
be sure all equipment is available for use. 

Check for the appropriate amount of space within 
the physical fitness area to safely utilize the 
equipment. 

Portable heaters used in stations shall be placed 
out of travel routes, placed av?ay from 
combustibles, and if turned over, shall turn 
themselves off. 

Monthly station generator check-off completed. 

Stations housing an on-site SCBA air compressor 
shall have in place and utilize a log book that 
meets 29 CFR 1910.134, which include the log-in 
of the following information: date bottle was filled, 
hydrostatic test date, identification number, and 
the person filling the bottle. 

Compressor and cascade records shall be clear 
and up to date. Air quality checks shall be posted 
in compressor room. 



Fill station containment device shall be in good 
working order. 

Any situation that warrants a concern shall 
be brought to the attention of the department's 
safety officer. 

Inspection by certified agency conducted for 
compressors rated at 60 gal and above. 

Inspection by certified agency conducted for hot 
water heaters with 120 gal and above. 

Have problems been documented? 

Any other concerns? 



Comments:. 



© 2006 National Fire Protection Association 



NFPA1500(p. 4of4) 



FIGURE G.l Continued 



E3 



2007 Edition 



ANNEX H 



1500-79 



Annex H Informational References 

H.l Referenced Publications. The documents or portions 
thereof listed in this annex are referenced within the informa- 
tional sections of this standard and are not part of the require- 
ments of this document unless also listed in Chapter 2 for 
other reasons. 

H.1.1 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Associa- 
don, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471. 

NFPAl, Uniform Fire Code™, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 10 f. Life Safety Code®, 2006 edition. 

NFR\ 40.?, Standard for Aircraft Rescue and Fire-Fighting Ser- 
vices at Airports, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 472, Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to 
Hazardous Materials Incidents, 2002 edition. 

NFR\ 704, Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards 
of Materials for Emergency Response, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 720, Standard for the Installation of Carbon Alonoxide 
(CO) Warning Ecjuipmenl in Dwelling Units, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 901, Standard Classifications for Incident Reporting and 
Fire Protection Data, 2006 edition, 

NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications, 

2002 edition. 

NFPA 1002, Standard for Fire Apparatus Driver/Operator Profes- 
sional Qualifications, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1041, Standard for Fire Service Instnictor Professional 
Qualifications, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1250, Recommended Practice in Emergency Service Organi- 
zation Risk Management, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1401, Recommended Practice ft/r Fire Service Training Re- 
ports and Records, 2006 edition, 

NFPA 1404, Standard for Fire Service Respiratory Protection 
Training, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1405, Guick for Land-Based Fire Fighters Wlw Respond to 
Marine Vessel Fires, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1451, Standard for a Fire Service Vehicle Operations Train- 
ingProgram, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1561, Standard on Emergency Services Incident Manage- 
ment System, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1581, Standard on Fire Department Infection Control Pro- 
gram, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1582, Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical 
Program for Fire Departments, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 1584, Recommended Practice on the Rehahililation of Mem- 
bers Operating at Incident Scene Operations and Training Exercises, 

2003 edidon. 

NFPA 1710, Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire 
Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Ojierations, and Special Op- 
erations to thePuhlic by Career Fire Departments, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1851, Standard on Selecticm,, Care, and Maintenance of 
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Ensembles, 2001 edition. 

N FPA 1901, Standard for Autornolive Fire Apparatus, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1912, Standard for Fire Aj)j)aralus Refurbishing, 2006 
edition. 

NFPA 1971, Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire 
Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 1975, Standard on Station/Work Uniforms for Fire and 
Emergency Services, 2004 edition. 



NFPA 1977, Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for 
Wildland Fire Fighting, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1981, Standard on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing 
Apparatus for Fire and Emergency Services, 2002 edition, 

NFPA 1991, Standard an Vapor-Protective Ensembles for Hazard- 
ous Materials Emergencies, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1992, Standard on Liquid Splash-Protective Ensembles and 
Clothing for Hazardous Materials Emergences, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1994, Standard on Protective Ensemhks for First Respond- 
ers to CBRN Terrorism Incidents, 2007 edition. 

NFPA 1999, Standard an Protective Clothing for Emergency Medi- 
cal Operations, 2003 edition. 

MFPA 500(f, Building Construction and Safely Code®, 2006 
edition. 

NFPA Fire Protection Handbook, 19th edition, 2003. 

H.l. 2 Other Publications. 

H.l. 2.1 ANSI Publications. American National Standards Insti- 
tute, Inc., 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036. 
ANSI Z88.2, Standard for Respiratory Protection, 1992. 

H.1.2.2 ASTM Publications. ASTM International, 100 Barr 
Harbor Drive, PO. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428- 
2959. 

ASTM F 739, Standard Test Method for' Resistance of Protective 
Clothing Materials to Permeation by Licpiids or Gases Under Condi- 
tions of Continuous Contact, 1999. 

ASTM F 903, Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials 
Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Liquids, 2004. 

ASTM F 1052, Standard Test Method for Pressure Testing Vapor 
Protective Ensembles, 2002. 

ASTM F 1 359, Standard Test Method for Liquid Penetration Re- 
sistance of Protective Clothing or Protective Ensembles Under a Shower 
Spray While on a Mannecfuin, 2004. 

H.l. 2.3 Federal Emergency Management Agency, United 
States Fire Administration Publications. U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion, 16825 S. Seaton Avenue, Emmitsburg, MD 21727. Also at 
http://www.usfa.fema.gov/ 

FA-100, Stress Management Model Progrcim for Maintaining Fire- 
fighter Well-Being 1990.' 

FA-118, Fire and Emergency Service Hearing Conservation Pro- 
gram Manual, 1991. 

FA-220, Firefighter Fatality Retrospective Study, 2002. 
FA-248, Safe Opmcition of Fire Tankers, 2003. 
FA-272, Emergency Vehicle Safety Initiative, 2004. 

H.1.2.4 lAFF/IAFC Publications. (lAFF) 1750 New York Av- 
enue, NW, Washington, DC 20006; (lAFC) 4025 Fair Ridge 
Drive, Fairfax, VA 22033-2868. 

The lAFF/lAFC Fire Service Joint Labor Management Can- 
didate Physical Ability Test (CPAT) Manual. 

H.l. 2. 5 lAPMO Publications. International Association of 
Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, 5001 E. Philadelphia 
Street, Ontario, CA91761. 

Uniform Mechanical Code, 2003. 
Uniform Plumbing Code, 2003. 

H.l. 2.6 ICMA Publications. International City/County Man- 
agement Association, 777 North Capitol Street N.E., Suite 500, 
Washington, DC 20002. 

Mcmaging Fire and Rescue Sennces, 2002, 



2007 Edition 



1500-80 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY /\ND HEA1.TH PROGRAM 



H.1.2.7 NFSIMSC Publications. Fire Protection Publications, 
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078. 

National Fire Service Incident Management System Con- 
sortium (NFSIMSC), "Model Procedures Guide for Highway 
Incidents," 1st edition, 2004. 

H.1.2.8 USDA Forest Service Publications. Missoula Technol- 
ogy and Development Center (MTDC), 5785 Highway 10 West, 
Missoula, MT 59808-9361. 

USDA Forest Service Specification 5100-606, Shelter Fire, 
M-2002. 

H. 1.2.9 U.S. DOT Publications. American Associadon of 
State Highway and Transportadon Officials, 444 North Capi- 
tol Street, NW, Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001. Also at 
http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/index.htm 

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Dexricesfor Streets and High- 
xuays,2{)Q'i. 

H.1.2.10 U.S. Government Publications. U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 

Americans with Disabilities Act, 1992. 

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, "Guidelines for 
Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in 
Health-Care Facilities," 1994, October, 1994. 

Federal Register, Vol. 59, 38028, July 26, 1994. 

Federal Register, Vol. 64, 56243, October 18, 1999. 

General Services Administration, Federal Specification for 
the "Star-of-Life Ambulance," KKK-A-1822E,June I, 2002. 

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, U.S. Department 
of Health and Human Services, Public Health Seraces, Publi- 
cation DHHS No. 8,5-114, September 1985. 

NIOSH Respirator User Notice of December 7, 1999. 

NIOSH Standard for Chemiccd, Biologi,cal, Radiobgiccd, and 
Nuclear (CBRN) Full Facepiece Air Purifying Respirator (APR), 
March 2003. 

OSHA Enforcement Policy and Procedures for Occupa- 
tional Exposure to Tuberculosis, October 8, 1993. 



Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910, Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health Standards. 

Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.95, Occu- 
pational noise exposure, 1996. 

Tide 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.120, Haz- 
ardous loaste operations and emergency response, 2002. 

Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.134, Respi- 
ratory protection, 1998. 

Tide 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1990.103, Defi- 
nitions, 2004. 

Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 311, Worlierpro- 
tertiow, June 1989. 

H.1.2.11 Other Publications. 

Selkirk, G. A., T. M. McLellan, and J. Wong, "Active Versus 
Passive Cooling During Work in Warm Environments While 
Wearing Firefighting Protective Clothing," Journal of Occupa- 
tional and Fnvironmental Hygiene, 1 :521-531 . 

H.2 Informational References. The following documents or 
portions thereof are listed here as informational resources only. 
They are not a part of the requirements of this document. 

H.2.1 NWCG (National Wildfire Coordinating Group) PubU- 
cations. National Interagency Fire Center Publications, Great 
Basin Cache Supply Office, 3833 S. Development Avenue, 
Boise, ID 83705. 

NWCG-NFES No. 1077, Inadenl Response Pocket Guide, Janu- 
aiy 2004. 

H.2. 2 Otiier Publications. 

LeCuyer, John. Designing the Fitness Program: A Guide for Pub- 
lic Safety Organizations, PennWell Corporation, Saddle Brook, 
NJ, 2001, 

H.3 References for Extracts in Informational Sections. 

NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor-Protective Ensembles for Hazard- 
ous Materials Emergencies, 2005 edition. 



2007 Edition 



INDEX 



1500-81 



Index 

Copyright © 2006 National Fire Protection Association. Ml Rights Reserved. 

The copyright in this index is separate and distinct from the copyright in the document that it indexes. The hcensing provisions set forth for the 
document are'not apphcable to this index. This index may not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without the express written 
permission of NFPA. 



-A- 

Accideat investigations, procedures, and review 4.4.4, 4.4.5, 

A.4.4..5 

Accountability see Personnel accotmtability system 

Adoption requirements l-5> A.I.5.] 

Advanced life support (ALS) A..5.3.9, A.8.5.19, A.8.9.3 

Definition 3.,?.61. 1 

Aerial devices 

Definition 3-3.2 

Inspecdon and testing 6.4.7 

Operator security system 8.5.22 

Air transfer (definition) 3.3.3, A.3.3.3 

Aircraft, for fire fighting 6.1.7, 10.1.4 

Aircraft rescue and fire figliting 

Definition 3.3.4, A.,3.3.4 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) 8.5.18, 

A.8.5.I8 

Professional qualifications 5.2.3 

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) , u.se of A.7.9.7 

Air-purifying respirators (APR) see Respiratory protecuon 

equipment (RPE) 
Alcohol abuse .... 10.1.5, 11. 1. 1 to 11.1.3, A.I0.I.5, A.lTl.l, A.11.1.3 

Apparatus see Fire apparams 

Application of standard 1 .3, A. 1 .3. 1 

Approved (definition) 3.2.1, A.3.2.I 

Arson investigators 8.5.23 

Atmospheres 

Hazardo\is see Hazardous atmospheres 

Oxygen-deficient (definition) 3.3.5.2 

Authority having jurisdiction (definition) 3.2.2, A.3.2.2 

-B- 

Basic life support (BLS) 8.5.19, 8.5.21 , 8.9.3, A.5.3.9, 

.A.8.5.19, A.8.9.3 

Definition 3.3.61 .2 

Belts see Seat belts 

Biological terrorism agents (definition) 3.3.7; see also CBIW 

terrorisiTi incidents 

Brake limiting valves 6.2.13 

Breathing air 7.10 

Building hazard assessment Annex C 

-c- 

Candidates 

Definition 3.3.8, A.3.3.8 

Medical requirements 10. 1.1 to 10.1.3, 10.1.4 

Physical performance requirements 10. 2. 1, 10.2.2, A.IO. 2.1 

Carbon monoxide detectors 9.1.4, A.9. 1.4 

CBRN (definition) 3-3-9 

CBRN terrorism incidents 

Protective ensembles for 7.5.3, A.7.2.4.2, A.7.5.1, A.7.5.3 

Protective equipment for 8.3.6, 8.3.7, A.8.3.7 

Chemical flash tires A.7.5.2 

Definition 3.3.10, A.3.3.10 

Chemical-protective clothing 7.5, 7.6, 7.13.9, A.7.5, F1,R2 

Chemical terrorism agents (definition) 3.3. 1 1 ; see also CBRN 

terrorism incidents 

CivU unrest 8.10, A.7.I.2, A.8.I0.1 toA.8.10.5 

Cleaning and disinfecting 

Equipment 6.5.10, 7.8.5.2 

Facilities for 9.1.2 



Fire apparatus 6.4.8 

Protective clothing 7.1.3, 7.1.4, 7.1.7, A.7.I.3,A.7.1.4, A.7.1. 7 

Emergency medical protective clothing 7.4.5 

Structural fire-ilghring clothing F.1.3 

Technical rescue protective clothing 7.8.5.2 

Vapor-protective ensembles 7.5.3.7 

Station/work uniforms 7.1 .7, A.7.1. 7 

Clear text 8.2.2, 8.2.3, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3 

Definition 3..3.I2, A.3.3.12 

Closed-circuit self-contained breathing 

apparatus (SCBA) see Self-contained breathing 

apparatus (SCBA) 

Cold zones 8.6. 1 , A.8.6.2 

Definition 3.3.19.1 

Communicable diseases 

Definition 3.3.24.1, A3.3.24.1 

Infection control 10.5, A.10.5.1 

Records of exposure to 4.6.1, 4.6.2, A.4.6.1 

Communications 8.2, A.8.1.8, A.8.2.2 to A.8.2.4.1 

Civil unrest/ terrorism 8.10.5, A.8.I0.5 

Dispatch 8.2.1,8.2.4.2 

Emergency traffic 8.2.2. 1,8.2.2.2, 8.2.3, A.8.2.3 

Incident 8.2.1, 8.2.4, 8.5.5, 8.5.9, 8.6.1.2, A.8.2.4 

Incident clock 8-2.4 

Company 8.4.6; see aim Members; Rapid intervention 

crew/coinpany (RIC) 

Defininon 3.3. 16, A.3.3.16 

Confined space A. / .9. / 

Definition 3.3.17, A.3.3.17 

Contact lenses, use with SCBA 7.13.6, A.7.1 3.6 

Contaminants/contamination see also Cleaning and disinfecting 

CBRN terrorism incidents 7.5.3.2, A.7.5. 3. 2 

Defininon 3.3.18 

Exhaust emissions, exposure to 9.1.6, A.9.I.6 

Protective clothing 7.1.4, 7.1.7.1, A.7.1.4, A.7.1. 7 

Chemical-protective clothing 7.6.2 

Emergency medical protective clothing 7.4.5, A.7.4 

Sleeping and living areas, ensemble in 9.1.7 

Strucnnal fire-fighfing protective clothing El .3 

Technical rescue protective clothing and equipment .... 7.8.5.2 

Vapor-protective clothing used at CBRN incidents 7.5.3.7 

Control zones 8.6, A.8.6.2 

Cold 8.6.2, A.8.6.2 

Definition 3.3.19 

Exclusion zones 8.6.2.3, A.8.6.2 

Hot 8.6.2, A.8.6.2 

Warm 8.6.2, A.8.6.2 

Crew (definition) 3.3.20; see also Rapid intervention 

crew/company (RIC) 

Critical incident stress program Chap. 12 

Cryogenic hquids (definition) 3.3.21, A.3.3.21 

-D- 

Data base, health see Health data base 

Debilitating illness or injury (definition) 3.3.22 

Decontamination .see Cleaning and disinfecting 

Defensive operations 8.3.2 (4) 

Definition .3..3.69.1, A.3..3.69.1 

Definitions Chap. 3 

Disease see Coinmunicable diseases; Infectious diseases 

Dispatch system 8.2. 1 



2007 Edition 



NFnr 



1500-82 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL S.^TIYAND HEALTH PROGRAM 



Disposal 

Chemical-protective clothing 7.5.3.7 to 7.5.3.9, 7.6.2 

Emergency medical protective clothing 7.4.5.1, 7.4.5.2 

Life safety rope 7.16.2.1, 7.16.3.1 

Drivers/operators of fire apparatus 5.2.2, 6.2, A.5.2.2, 

A.6.2.1 toA.6.2.14.2 

Drugs 10.1.5, 11.1.1 to 11.1.3,A.I0.1.5,A.11.1.1,A.U.1.3 

Definition 3.3.25 

Duty, evaluation of fitness for 10.7 



Ear protection 6.5.2, 7.18, A.7.I8.1 toA.7.l8.3 

Education se^Training and education 

Emergency incident (definition) 3.3.5 1 . 1 ; vw also Emergency 

operations 

Emergency medical services 8.5.21 

Definition 3.3.27 

Hazardous materials incidents 8.5.20 

Moving vehicle, safety of member providing service in 6.3.3, 

A.6.3.3 

Protecdve clothing for 7.4, A.7.4 

Rehabilitation during emergency operations 8.9, 

A.8.9.1 toA.8.9.5 

Special operations 8.5.19, A.8.5.19 

Training requirements 5.1.7, 5.3.9, A.5.3.9 

Emergency operations Chap. 8; 

see also Emergency medical services 

Civil unrest/ terrorism 8.10, A.8.10.1 toA.8.10.5 

Control zones 8.6, A.8.6.2 

Definition 3.3.69.2 

Fire apparatus, use of 6.2, A.6.2.1 to A.6.2.H.2 

Members operating at 8.4.6 to 8.4.8, 

8.4.12, 8.5, A.8.5. 1.1 toA.8.5.24 

Personnel accoimtability system see, Persormel accountability 

system 

Physical performance requirements 10.2.3 to 10.2.5 

Post-incident analysis 8.11 

Private vehicles used for emergency response 6.2.14, A.6.2. 14 

Protective clothing for see Protective ensembles 

Rapid intervention for rescue of members 8.8, A.8.8.4 

Rehabilitation during 8.9, A.8.9.1 to A.8.9.5 

Risk management during 8.3, A.8.3.1 to A.8.3.7 

Terrori.sm/CBRN 8.3.6, 8.3.7, A.8.3.7 

Traffic incidents 8.7, A.8,7 

Training for 5.1.3, 5.1.4, 5.1.10, 5.1.11, A.5. 1.4 

Equipment 6.5; see also Personal protective equipment (PPE) 

Accident investigations 4.4.5. 1 , A. 4.4.5 

Carried on apparatus 

Inspection and testing 6.5.6 to 6.5.8, A.6. 4.1 

Inventory records 6.5.7 

Securing to vehicle 6.1.5, A.6. 1.5 

Hearing protection for use of power equipment 6.5.2, 

7.18.2,A.7.]8.2 

Inventory records 6.5.7 

Records 4.6.5 

Rescue 8.8.2.1 

Traffic incidents, warning devices for 8.7.5, A.8.7.5 

Equivalency to standard 1.4, A. 1.4.1 

Evaluation 

Fitness for duty 10.7 

Medical evaluations 10.1.1 to 10.1.5, A.10.1.5 

Risk 4.2.3(2), A.4.2.3, D.I. 2 

Of safely and health program 4.3.3, A.4.3.3 

Extinguishers, portable fire 6.5. 13 

Eye protection see Primary eye protection 



-F- 

Face protection 7.4.1, 7.4.4, 7.17, A.7.4, A.7.17.1 . 1 

Faceshields 7.17.1. 3, A. 7.17.1.1 

Definition 3.3.30, A.3.3.30 



Facial hair, and SCBAuse 7.13.3, A.7.13. 3 

Facilities see Fire department facilities 

Fire apparatus Chap. 6; see also Aerial devices 

Accident investigations 4.4.5. 1 , A.4.4.5 

Aircraft 6.1.7,10.1.4 

Brake limiting valves 6.2.13 

Definition 3.3.32 

Drivers/operators 5.2.2, 6.2, A.5.2.2, A.6.2.1 to A.6.2. 14.2 

Hearing protection 7.18, A.7.I8.1 toA.7.18.3 

Inspection, maintenance, and repair 6.4, 6.5.6 to 6.5.9, 

A.6.4.1,A.6.4.4 

Persons riding in 6.3,A.6.3.1 toA.6.3.8 

Records 4.6.5, 6.5.7 

Retarders 6.2. 1 2 

Shield against motor vehicle traffic, use as 8.7.3 to 8 7 7 

A.8.7.5 

Unsafe due to major defects 6.4.4, A.6.4.4 

Fire chief 4.7. 1, 4.7.3, 4.7.6, A.4.3.3 

Definition 3.3.33 

Fire department 

Administration Chap. 4 

Definition 3.3.34, A.3.3.34 

Organizational statement 4.1, A.4.1 .1 , A.4.1.2 

Roles and responsibiUties 4,4, A.4.4.3, A.4.4.5 

Fire department facilities 4.4.5.1 

Definition 3.3.35, A.3.3.35 

Inspection checklist, sample Annex G 

Safety Chap. 9 

Fire department member see Member 

Fire department physician 10.3.4, 10.6, 10.7.2, A.1 0.6.3, A.10.6.4 

Fire fighting see Proximity fire fighting; Structural fire fighting; 

Wildland fire fighting 

Fire hose ; ^gg Hose 

Fire officers, professional qualifications 5.2.4 

Fire pumps, service testing of 6.4.6 

Fire shelters 5.3.6, 7.7.3, A.7.7.3 

Definition 3.3.38 

Fire suppression 

Definition 3.3.,39, A.3.3.39 

Medical requirements for members engaging in 10.1.3 

Fitness for duty evaluations 10.7 

Full facepiece air-purifying respirators 7.5.3.6. 1 , 7. 1 1 .3, 

A.7.5.3.6,A.7.1 1.3.3 



-G- 

Gloves A.7. 1 . 1 

Medical 7.4.1, 7.4.2, 7.4.5.1, A.7.4, A.7.4.2 

Protective coats, use with 7.9.4 

Goggles A.7.1,1, A.7.4, A.7.17.1. 1 

Definition 3.3.40 



-H- 

Hardware 7. 1 6 1 

Harnesses 

Life safety 7.16, A. 7.16.3 

Vehicle safety 6.1.7 1 

Definition 3.3.94 

Hazard control zones sw Control zones 

Hazardous areas see also Control zones; Hazardous atmospheres 

Crew operations in 8.5.4 to 8.5.17, A.8.5.4 to A.8.5. 1 1 

Definition 3.3.42 

Personal protective equipment/SCBA for 7.17.3, 8.5.23 

Hazardous atmospheres 

Definition 3.3.5.1, A.3.3.5.1 

Respiratoi-y protection equipment, use of 7.9.7, 7 9 8 

7.12.2, 7.13.3, A.7.9.7,A.7.9.8 

Hazardous material (definition) 3.3.44 

Hazardous materials operations 

Definition 3.3.69.3 

Emergency medical care 8.5.20 



2007 Edition 



INDEX 



1500-83 



Personal protective eqiiiptnent Annex F 

Protective clotliing for 7.5, A.7.5, F. 1 

Responders, training requirements for 5.2.6, 5.4.3, A.5.2.6 

Hazards 

Building hazard assessment Annex C 

Definition 3.3.41, A.3.3.41 

Identification of specific hazards, .system for C. 1 

Health and fitness coordinator 10..3.3, 10.3.4, 10.6.5 

Definition 3.3.46 

Health and safety officer 4.5.1.1 (1), 4.7, 10.6.5; see also Incident 

safety officer 
Definition 3.3.47, A.3.3.47 

Health data base 

Confidential 4.6.3, 10.4, A.10.4.1 toA.10,4.4 

Definition 3.3.48 

Health maintenance program 11.2, A. 11. 2.1, A.ll. 2. 2; see also 

Member assistance program (MAP) 

Health records 4.6.1 to 4.6.3, 10.4, A.4.6.1, A.10.4.1 toA.10.4.4 

Hearing protection 6.5.2, 7.18, A.7. 18.1 to A.7.18.3 

Helmets 6.3.6, 7.13.10, 7.17.1.3, A.6.3.6 

Hose 6.5.4 

Loading operations in mo\'ing vehicle 6.3.4, A.6.3.4 

Service testing 6.5.12 

Hot zones 8.6.1, A.8.6.2 

Definition 3.3.19.2 

-I- 

lUness or injury 

Debilitating illness or injury 3.3.21 

Occupational illness 4.4.5 

Definition 3.3.65 

Occupational injury 4.4.5 

Definition 3.3.66 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) 7.9.7, 7.9.8, 

7.11.2.2, 7,11.2.3, 7.11.3.1, A.7.9.7,A.7.9.8,A.8.5.11 

Aircraft rescue fire-fighdng incidents 8.5.18, A.8.5. 18 

Chemical-protective clothing for hazardous materials emergency 

operations 7.5.1.1, 7.5. 1 .3, 7.5.3.4, 7.5.3.5 

Definition 3.3.50 

Personal protective equipment and/or SCBA for 8.5.23, 

A.7.13.3 

Incident action plan (definition) 3.3.52 

Incident commanders 8.1.5 to 8.1.8, 8.2.4.2, A.8.1.5 to A.8.1.8 

CBRN terrorism incidents 7.5.3.2.1 

Civil unrest/ terrorism, role in 8.10.6 to 8.10.10 

Control zones, designation of 8.6. 1 . 1 

Definition 3.3.,53 

Emergency medical care, role in 8.5.21 

Personnel accountability .system, role in 8.4,4, 8.4. 1 2 

Rapid intervention, role in 8.8.4, A.8.8.4 

Rehabilitation chiring emergency operations, role in 8.9.2, 

A.8.9.2 
Risk management by 8.3, A.8.3.1 to A.8.3.7 

Incident management system (IMS) 8.1, 8.3.1, 8.3.4, 

A.8.1.1 toA.8.L8,A.8.3.1 

Definition 3.3.54, A.3.3.54 

Personnel accountability see Personnel accountability system 

Training in 5.1.11 

Incident officers, responsibilities of 8.4.5 

Incidents 

Emergency (definition) ..'. 3.3.51.1; i(;e a/so Emergency operations 

Rescue *«« Rescue incidents 

Traffic see Traffic incidents 

Incident safety officer 8.3.5, 8.11 .2, A.8.3.5 

Definition 3.3.55, A.3.3.55 

Industrial fire brigade (definition) 3.3.56 

Infection control program 10.5, A.10.5. 1 

Definition 3.3.57, A.3.3..57 

Infectious agents 4.6.1 , A.4.6.1, A.7.4 

Infectious diseases 4.6.2; see tilso Infection control program 

Definition 3.,3.24.2 



Initial attack 8.5.16,8.5.17,8.8.5 

Inspections 

Extinguishers, portable fire 6.5. 13 

Fire apparatus 4.6.5, 6.4.1, 6.4,3, 6.4.7, A.6.4.1 

Fire department facilities 9.2, A.9. 1.9, Annex G 

Ladders, ground 6.5.1 1 

Protective clothing and equipment 7.2.5.2, 7.5.3.10, 7.6.1, 

7.8.5.1, 7.14.1, 7.16.3, 7.16.4, A.7.1.,3,A,7. 14.1, A.7.16.3 
Tools and equipment 4.6.5, 6.5.1, 6.5.6, A.6.4.1 

Interface components A.7.2.4.2 

Definition 3.3.59 

Investigations 

Accident 4.4.4, 4.4.5, A.4.4.5 

Arson investigators, protective equipment 

and/or SCBA for 8.5.23 

Life-threatening situation, actions taken in 8.5.17.2 



Ladders, ground 6.5.3, 6.5.11 

Law enforcement agency 8.10.4 to 8.10.12, A.8. 10.5 

Life safety harness system components 7.16, A.7. 1 6.3 

Life safety rope 7.16, A.7.16.3 

Definition 3.3.60 

Life support «k Advanced life support (ALS) ; Basic life support 

(BLS) 

Liquefied gas (definition) 3.3.62, A.3.3.62 

Liquid splash-protective ensembles and clothing . . . 7.5.2, A.7.5. 2, F.2 
Live fire training evolutions 5.3.7, A. 5. 3. 7 

-M- 

Maintenance 

Fire apparatus 4.6.5, 6.4.2, 6.4.3 

Fire department facilities 9.3, A. 9. 3 

Protective clothing and equipment 7.2.5, 7.5.3.10, 7,6.1 , 

7.8.5.1,7.9.1, A.7.9.1.1 

Tools and equipment 4.6.5, 6.5.1 

Marine vessels 

Fire-fighting vessels 6.1.4 

Long-duration SCBA, use of A.7. 1 1 . 1 .3 

Medical evaluations 10.1.1 to 10.1.4 

Medical requirements 10.1, A. 10. 1.5 

Member assistance program (MAP) ILl, A.ll. 1.1 to A. 11.1. 4 

Definition 3.3.64 

Member organization 

Definition 3.3.65 

Occupational safety and health program, role in 4.4.8, 

4.5.1.1(3), 4.5.1.3 
Members 

Crew operations 8.5.4 to 8.5.17, A.8.5.4 to A.8.5. 11 

Definition 3.3.63, A.3.3.63 

Fitness for duty evaluations 10.7 

Health records 4.6.3, 10.4, A.10.4.1 toA.10.4.4 

Infection control 10.5, A. 10.5. 1 

Medical requirements 10.1.3 to 10.1.5, A.l 0.1. 5 

Operating at emergency incidents 8.5, A.8.5. 1.1 to A.8.5. 24 

Personnel accountability system see Personnel accountability 

system 

Physical fitness 10.3 

Physical performance requirements 10.2, A.IO. 2.1 

Professional qualifications 5.2, 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 

A.5.2.2, A.5.2.6, A.5.3.1 

Rapid intervention for rescue of 8.8, A.8.8.4 

Rehabilitation during emergency operations 8.9, 

A.8.9.1 toA.8.9.5' 

Standby, at hazardous incidents 8.5.7 to 8.5. 15, A.8.5.7, 

A.a.5.11 
Training see Training and education 



-N- 
Nuclear exposure see CBiyV terrorism incidents 



2007 Edition 



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FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



-O- 

Occupational illness 4.4.5 

Definition 3.3.66 

Occupational injury 4.4.5 

Definition 3.3.67 

Occupational safety and health committee 4.5, A.4.5.1, A.4.5.3 

Occupational safety and health program 4,4, A.4.4.3, A.4.4.5 

Health and .safety officer, role of see Health and safety officer 

Member organization, role of 4.4.8, 4.5.1.1 (3), 4.5.1.3 

Monitoring compliance, worksheet for Annex B 

Offensive operations (definition) 3.3.69.4 

Operations see. also Emergency operations; Hazardous materials 

operations; Special operadons 

Defensive 8.3.2(4) 

Definition 3.3.69.1, A.3..3.69.1 

Offensive (definition) 3.3.69.4 

Operators, fire apparatus .... 5.2.2, 6.2, A.5.2.2, A.6.2.1 toA.6.2.14.2 

Organizational statement, fire department 4.1, A.4.1.1, A.4.1.2 

Oxygen-deficient atmosphere (definition) 3.3.5.2 



Hazardous materials incidents see. Hazardous 

materials operations 

Proximity fire Cghring 7.3, A.7.3.1 , A.7.5.3.6 

Rapid intervendon crew 8.8.2.1 

Standby members 8.5.13, 8.5.1 4 

Structural fire fighting see Structural fire fighting 

Technical rescue 7.8.5 

Traffic incidents 8.7.10, A.8.7.10 

Training in use of 5.3.10, A.5.3. 10 

Use of 7.1.2,A.7.1.1,A.7.1.2 

Wildland fire fighting 7.7, A.7.7.3 

Protective equipment si?e Personal protective equipment (PPE) 

Proximity fire fighting 

Definition 3.3.37.1, A.3.3.37.1 

Protective clothing for 7.3, A.7.3. 1 , A.7.5.3.6 

Purpose of standard 1,2, A. 1.2.3 



Qualified person (definition) 3.3.77 



Particulates (definition) 3.3.71, A.3. 3.71; seeaisoCBRN terrorism 

incidents 

Personal alert safety system (PASS) 7.1 5, A.7. 1 1 . 1 .2, 

A.7.15.2,A,7,15,3 
Personal protective equipment (PPE) . . . Chap. 7; see also Respiratoiy 
protection equipment (RPE) 

CBRN incidents 8.3.6, 8.3.7, A.8.3.7 

Existing 7.19.2, 7.19.3 

Hazardous areas 8.5.23, 8.6.2. 1 

Hazardous materials Annex F 

Hearing protection 7.18, A.7.18.1 to A,7.18.3 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) 8.5.23 

Life safet)' rope and system components 7.16, A.7.16.3 

New 7.19.1 

Personal alert safety system (PASS) 7.15, A.7.15.2, A.7.15.3 

Rapid intervention crew 8.8.2.1 

Standby members 8.5.13, 8.5.14 

Training and education for use of 5.1.8, 5.3.10, A.5. 3.10 

Use of 7.1.2, A.7.1.1,A.7.12 

Wildland fire fighting 7.7, A,7.7.3 

Personnel accoimtability system 5.1.11,8.4, A.7.1 1.1.2, 

A.8.4.1 toA.8.4.11 

Definition 3.3.72 

Personal alert .safety system (PASS) 7.15, A.7.15.2, A.7.15.3 

Physical fitness 10.3 

Physical performance requirements 10.2, A. 10.2. 1 

Physician, fire department see Fire department physician 

Policy 4.3, A.4.3. 1, A.4.3.3 

Post-incident analysis 8.11 

Powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) see Respiratory 

protection equipment (RPE) 

Primary eye protection 7. 1 7, A.7. 1 7. 1 . 1 

Definition 3.3.73 

Fire apparatus, use in 6.3.7, A.6.3.7 

SCBA facepiece used as 7.17.2 

Technical rescue operations 7.8.4 

Wildland fire fighting 7.7.4 

Procedure (definition) 3.3.74 

Professional qualifications 5.2, 5.3.1, 5.3.2, A.5.2.2, 

A.5.2.6, A.5.3. 1 

Protective clothing see Protective ensembles 

Protective ensembles Chap. 7; see also Personal protective 

equipment (PPE) ; Respiratoiy protection equipment 
{RPE) 

Chemical-protective clothing see Chemical-protective clothing 

Definition 3.3.75, A.3.3.75 

Emergency medical operations 7,4, A,7.4 

E'iisting 7,19.2, 7,19,3 



-R- 

Radiological particulates hazards see CBRN terrorism incidents 

Rapid intervention crew/company (RIG) 8.5.16, 8.8, A.8.8.4 

Definition 3.3.78, A.3.3.78 

Records 4.6, A.4.6. 1, A.4.6.4 

Equipment inventory 6.5.7 

Health database, confidential 10.4, A.IO. 4.1 toA.10.4.4 

Life safety rope 7. 16.5 

Life-threatening situation, actions taken in 8.5.17.2 

Member assistance program 11.1.4, 11.1.5, A.l 1.1. 4 

Respiratory facepiece fitting tests 7.12.5 

References Chap. 2, Annex H 

Rehabilitation 

During emergency operations 8.9, A.8.9.1 to A.8.9.5 

Fitness for duty 10.7.3 

Physical performance 10.2.5 

Related activities (definition) 3.3.79 

Repairs 

Equipment 6.5.9 

Fire apparatus 4.6.5, 6.4.1, 6.4,3 to 6.4.5, A.6.4.1, A.6.4.4 

Fire department facilities 9.3, A.9.3 

Tools and equipment 4.6.5, 6.5.1 

Rescue see also Technical rescue 

Definition 3.3.80 

Hydraulic rescue tools 6.5. 14 

Rapid intervention for members 8.5.16, 8.8, A.8.8.4 

Structural fire, fire fighters at 8.5.7, 8.5.12, 8.5.13.1, 

8.5.15, 8.5.'l 6, A.8.5.7 

Rescue incidents see also Technical rescue 

Definition 3.3.51 .2 

Hoist rescue, aircraft 6.1.7.1 

Water rescue, personal flotation devices for 8.5.24, A.8.5.24 

Respiratory protection equipment (RPE) see also Self-contained 

breathing apparatus (SCBA) 

Air-purifying respirators (APR) 7.8.3.1, A.7.8. 3.1, 

A.7.8.3.2,A.7.12.1 

Full facepiece air-purifying respirators 7.5.3.6. 1 , 

7. 11. 3, A.7.1 1.3.3 

Powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) 7.8.3.1, 

7.12.3,A.7.8.3.1,A.7.8.3.2 

Breathing air 7 ] q 

Buddy breathing A.7. 11 . 1 .2 

Definition 3.3.82, A.3.3.82 

Fit testing 7.12,A.7.12.1 to 7.12.6 

Respiratoiy protection program for 7.9, A.7.9. 1 . 1 to A,7.9.8 

Securing on fire deparunent vehicles of 6. 1 .5, A.6. 1.5 

StippHed-air respirators 7,11.2 

Training in u.se of 5,3.5, A.5.3.5 



2007 Edition 



INDEX 



1500-85 



Use of 7.13,A.7.13.3,A.7.13.6 

Emergency medical serace 7.4.3, A.7.4.3 

Hazardous materials emergencies 7.."). 1.3, 7.5.2.3, 7.5.3.3.1, 

7.5.3.4.1 , 7.5.3.5.1 ,7.5.3.6.1, A.7.5.3.6, F.2 

Proximity fire fighting protective clothing use and 7.3.4 

Technical rescue operations 7.8.3, A.7.8.3.1, A.7.8.3.2 

Retarders, fire department vehicles 6.2.12 

Risk 

Control 4.2.3(4) , A.4.2.3, D.1.5 

Definition 3.3.83 

Evaluation 4.2.3(2), A.4.2.3, D. 1.2 

Identification 4.2.3(1), A.4.2.3, D.1.1 

Priorities for action, establishment of 4.2.3(3), A.4.2.3, D.1.3 

Risk management 

Definidon 3.3.84 

During emergency operations 8.3, A.8.3.1 toA.8.3.7 

Monitoring and follow-up 4.2.3(5), A.4.2.3, D.1.6 

Plan 1 .5.3, 4.2, A.4,2.1 , A.4.2.3 

Factors /\jinex D 

Sample D.2 

Training and education on 5.1.5 

Rope 

Life safety see Life safety rope 

Safety guide 8.5.5 

-S- 

Safety guide rope 8.5.5 

Safety officer, incident vee Incident safety officer 

Safety standards 9. 1 , A.9 . 1 . 1 to A.9. 1 .9 

SCBA see Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) 

Scope of standard 1.1 

Seat belts 

Definition 3.3.86 

Fire apparatus pa.ssengers 6.3.1 to 6.3.3, 6.3.8, 

A.6.3.1,A.6.3.3,A.6.3.8 

Hoist rescue systems 6.1.7.1 

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) 7.9.8, 7.11 T, 

8.8.2.1 to8.8.2.6,A.7.9.8,A.7.11.1.2,A.7.H.1.3; jecaiso 
Respiratory protection equiptnent (RPE) 

Breathing air used to fill 7.10 

Closcd-circtiit self-contained breathing 

apparatus (SCBA) 7.11.1.3, 7.11.1.4, A.7.11. 1.3 

Definition 3.3.87.1 

Cylinders 7.14, A.7.14.1 to A.7.14.6 

Definitions 3.3.85, 3.3.87 

Face and eye protection, used for 7.17.2 

Fit A.7.12.1,A.7.12.6 

Hazardous areas 8.5.23 

Llazardous atmospheres 7.9.7, A.7.9.7 

Hazardous materials incidents F.2 

CBRN terrorism incidents 7.5.3.3.1, 7.5.3.4.1, 

7.5.3.5.1, 7.5.3.6.1, A.7.5.3.6 

Liquid splash-protecfive ensembles 7.5.2.3 

Vapor-protective ensembles 7.5.1.3 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) 8.5.23 

Long-duration 7.11.1.3, A.7.11. 1.3 

Proximity fire fighting protective clothing use and 7.3.4 

Rapid fill system, use of 7.14.6 to 7.14.10, A.7.14.6 

Resene 7.9.4, 7.9.5, A.7.9.4 

Standby members, for 8.5.13, 8.5.14 

Technical rescue operations 7.8.3.2, 7.8.3.3, A.7.8.3.2 

Service tests 

Aerial devices 6.4.7 

Definition 3.3.88 

Fire hose 6.5. 12 

Fire pumps 6.4.6 

Ladders, ground 6.5. 1 1 

Shall (definition) 3.2.3 



Should (definition) 3.2.4 

Smoke detectors 9. 1 .3 

Smoke-free areas 9. 1 .8 

Smoking cessation program 11.2.2, A. II. 2.2 

Special operations 8.3.5, 8.5.1 9, A.8.3.5, A.8.5.19 

Definidon 3.3.69.5, A.3.3.69.5 

Law enforcement support 8.10.4 to 8.10.12, A.8. 10. 5 

Rapid intervendon crew for 8.8.7 

Training for 5.4 

Spectacles 

Definition 3.3.90, A.3.3.90 

SCBA used with 7.13.4,7.13.5 

Spray nozzles 6.5.5 

Station/work uniforms 7.1.5, 7.1.7, A.7.1.5, A.7.1.7 

Storage areas 9.1.2, 9.1.3 

Stress program, critical incident Chap. 12 

Structural fire fighting 5.2.1 

Building hazard assessment Annex C 

Definition 3.3.37.2 

Hazardous areas, team operations in 8.5.4 to 8.5.17, 

A.8.5.4toA.8.5.11 

Protective ensembles 7.2, A.7.2.1 to A.7.2.4.2, A.7.5.,3.6, F.l 

Cleaning of 7.1.3 

Inspection of A.7.L3 

Substance abuse 10.1.5, 11. 1.1 to 11.1.3, A. 10.1.5, 

A.11.1.1,A.11.1.3 
Supplied-air respirators 7.11.2 

-T- 

Tactical level management component (TLMC) A.8. 1 .8 

Definition 3.3.92 

Technical rescue 

Definition 3.3.93 

Protective ensembles for 7.8 

Training requirements for 5.4.4 

Terrorism'incidents 8.3.6, 8.3.7, 8.10, A.8. 1 0.1 to A.8.10.5; see also 

CBRN terrorism incidents 

Tests 

Equipment on apparatus 6.5.8 

Extinguishers, portable tire 6.5.13 

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) cylinders 7. 14.2 

Service see Service tests 

Tillers 

Helmets and eye protection for pas.sengers in 6.3.6, 

6.3.7, A.6..3.6,A.6.3.7 
Training 6.3.5, A.6.3.5 

Tobacco use programs 11.2.2, A. 1 1.2.2 

Tools 6.5 

Hearing protection 6.5.2, 7.18.2, A.7. 18.2 

Securing on fire department vehicles of 6.1 .5, A. 6.1 .5 

Toxic products 4.6.2 

Traffic incidents 8.7, A.8.7 

Definition 3.3.51 .3 

Training and education Chap. 5 

Equipment used for 

Inspection and testing 6.5.6 to 6.5.8, A.6.4.1 

Inventory records 6.5.7 

Law enforcement support cjpe rations 8.10.11, 8.10.12 

Member proficiency, training frequency to maintain 5.5, 

A.5.5.3 

Member qualifications 5.2, A.5.2.2, A.5.2.6 

Records 4.6.4, A.4.6.4 

Requirements 5.3, A.5.3.1 to A.5.3.10 

Respiratory protection equipment 7.9.1, 7.9.3, A.7.9.1.1 

Special operations, for 5.4 

Tillers 6.3.5, A.6.3.5 

Traffic control 8.7. 1 1 , A.8.7.11 

Wildland fire fighting Annex E 



2007 Edition 



(3 

HFnr 



1500-86 



FIRE DEPARTMENT OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 



-V- 

Vapor-protective ensembles 7.5.1, 7.5.3.3, A. 7.5.1, F.2 

Vehicles, fire department 6.1, A.6.1.1, A.6.1.5; 

see also Fire apparatus 

Brake limiting valves 6.2.13 

Drivers/operators of 6.2, A.6.2.1 to A.6.2. 14.2 

Retarders 6.2.12 

Vehicles, private 

Emergency response, use for 6. 2. 14, A. 6. 2. 14 

Motor vehicle traffic at emergency scene 8.7.7, 8.7.10, 

8.7.11, A.8.7.10,A.8.7.1I 

Vehicle safety harnesses 6. 1 .7. 1 

Definition 3.3.95 

Violence, at incidents see Civil unrest 



-W- 

Warm zones 8.6. 1, A,8.6.2 

Definition 3.3.19.3 

Water rescue, personal flotation devices for 8.5.24, A.8.5.24 

Wellness program 11.2, A.ll. 2.1, A.11.2.2 

Wildland fire fighting 8.9.5, A.8.9.5 

Apparatus 6. 1 .3 

Definition 3.3.37.3 

Protective clothing and equipment for 7.7, A.7.7.3 

Training for 5.2.5, 5.3.6, E.3, E.4 

WrisUets 7.2.4.1, 7.2.4.2, A.7.2.4.2 



2007 Edition 



Tentative Interim Amendment 

NFPA 1500 

Standard on Fire Department Occupational 
Safety and Health Program 

2007 Edition 

Reference: 7.19.3 
TIA 07-2 

(SC 08-10-9/TIA Log #935) 

Pursuant to Section 5 of the NFPA Regulations Governing Committee Projects, the National Fire Protection 
Association has issued the following Tentative Interim Amendment to NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department 
Occupational Safety and Health Program, 2007 edition. The TIA was processed by the Technical Committee on 
Fire Service Occupational Safety and Health, and was issued by the Standards Council on October 28, 2008, with 
an effective date of November 17, 2008. 

A Tentative Interim Amendment is tentative because it has not been processed through the entire standards- 
making procedures. It is interim because it is effecdve only between edidons of the standard. A TIA automatically 
becomes a proposal of the proponent for the next edition of the standard; as such, it then is subject to all of the 
procedures of the standards-making process. 

1. Revise 7.19.3 to read as follows: 

Members' protecdve ensembles for stmctural fire fighting and protecdve ensembles for proximitv fire fighting 
shall be retired in accordance with NFPA \85\ ..Standard on Selection, Care, and Maintenance of Protective 
Ensembles for Structural Fire Fishtins and Proximitv Fire Fighting. PPE shall be taken out of service after 1 .5 
years from date of manufacture, regardless of testing or inspection procedure s . 



issue Date: October 28, 2008 
Effective Date: November 17, 2008 



(Note: For further information on NFPA Codes and Standards, please see www.nfpa.org/codelist) 



Copyright © 2008 All Rights Reserved 
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION 



Sequence of Events Leading to Issuance 
of an NFPA Committee Document 

Step 1: Call for Proposals 

•Proposed new Document or new edition of an existing 
Document is entered into one of two yearly revision cy- 
cles, and a Call for Proposals is published. 

Step 2: Report on Proposals (ROP) 

•Committee meets to act on Proposals, to develop its own 
Proposals, and to prepare its Report. 

•Committee votes by written ballot on Proposals. If two- 
thirds approve, Report goes forward. Lacking two-thirds 
approval, Report returns to Committee. 

•Report on Proposals (ROP) is published for public re- 
view and comment. 

Step 3: Report on Comments (ROC) 

•Committee meets to act on Public Comments to develop 
its own Comments, and to prepare its report. 

•Committee votes by written ballot on Comments. If two- 
thirds approve, Report goes forward. Lacking two-thirds 
approval, Report returns to Committee. 

•Report on Comments (ROC) is published for public re- 
view. 

Step 4: Technical Report Session 

'"Notices of intent to make a motion" are filed, are reviewed, 
and valid modons are cerdfied for presentation at the 
Technical Report Session. ("Consent Documents" that 
have no certified motions bypass the Technical Report 
Session and proceed to the Standards Council for issu- 
ance.) 

•NFPA membership meets each June at the Annual Meet- 
ing Technical Report Session and acts on Technical 
Committee Reports (ROP and ROC) for Documents 
with "certified amending motions." 

•Committee (s) vote on any amendments to Report ap- 
proved at NFPA Annual Membership Meeting. 

Step 5: Standards Council Issuance 

•Notification of intent to file an appeal to the Standards 
Council on Association action mtist be filed within 20 
days of the NFPA Annual Membership Meeting. 

•Standards Council decides, based on all evidence, 
whether or not to issue Document or to take other ac- 
tion, including hearing any appeals. 



Committee Membership Classifications 

The following classifications apply to Technical Commit- 
tee members and represent their principal interest in the 
activity of the committee. 

M Manufacturer: A representative of a maker or mar- 
keter of a product, assembly, or system, or portion 
thereof, that is affected by the standard. 

U User: A representative of an entity that is subject to 

the provisions of the standard or that voluntarily 
uses the standard. 

I/M Installer/ Maintainer: A representative of an entity 
that is in the business of installing or maintaining 
a product, assembly, or system affected by the stan- 
dard. 

L Labor: A labor representative or employee con- 

cerned with safety in the workplace. 

R/T Applied Research/Testing Laboratory: A representative 
of an independent testing laboratoi7 or indepen- 
dent applied research organization that promul- 
gates and/or enforces standards. 

E Enforcing Authority: A representative of an agency 

or an organization that promulgates and/or en- 
forces standards. 

I Insurance: A representative of an insurance com- 

pany, broker, agent, bureau, or inspection agency. 

C Consumer: A person who is, or represents, the ul- 

timate purchaser of a product, system, or service 
affected by the standard, but who is not included 
in the f/ser classification. 

SE Special Expert: A person not representing any of 
the previous classifications, but who has a special 
expertise in the scope of the standard or portion 
thereof. 



NOTES; 

1. "Standard" connotes code, standard, recommended 
practice, or gtiide. 

2. A representative includes an employee. 

3. While these classifications will be used by the Standards 
Council to achieve a balance for Technical Committees, 
the Standards Council may determine that new classifi- 
cations of members or unique interests need representa- 
tion in order to foster the best possible committee delib- 
erations on any project. In this connection, the Standards 
Council may make appointments as it deems appropriate 
in the public interest, such as the classification of "Utili- 
ties" in the National Electrical Code Committee. 

4. Representatives of subsidiaries of any group are gener- 
ally considered to have the same classification as the par- 
ent organization.